Sapphire Gimenez: Jubilee Montessori Instructional System Design

From KNILT

Jubilee Montessori is a System of Instruction. In this Mini Course we will focus on the Language Arts Program, by seeing how the system specifically applies to spelling.

Jubilee Montessori Instructional System Design

Uniqueness of the System

  1. Instruction Characteristics

Instruction Characteristics

The most Influential authors and philosophies that have shaped this program are: The Absorbent Mind (Maria Montessori), Principles of Instructional Design (Robert Gagne), Collins, ETAP 623, Fall 2009 Jiwen Zhang and my fellow classmates particularly Barbara Raccio and Kelly Geddes, The Writing Road to Reading (Romalda Bishop Spalding).

The instruction in this course is suitable for all three types of learners: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners. The program uses all of these learning styles, consistently throughout the program and in varying degrees to facilitate and cement learning.

The curriculum is organized in a spiral manner so that students continually build upon what they have already learned, and it is sequentially structured so that they can most readily grasp the material (Cagne, 2005) (p. 188).

Note: For the purpose of sharing information in this kind of platform – a wiki website, I had to look for available virtual resources that more or less do the same thing, as would happen in a live classrooms Most methods chosen, very closely resemble, simulate what could happen in 3-D, live scenarios. I give resources where you can find further ideas to enhance your program.

Another important note is that in this wiki platform I use:
/  / to denote a sound and, 
‘  ‘ to denote the individual letter(s).
  1. Environment Factors that Support the Instructional Setting

In a Montessori Environment, a “work” is a tray set up with an activity that is very child friendly. It needs to be very aesthetically beautiful and also developmentally doable for the type of children in the class. The activity or the “work “serves a very specific educational function. Some of the educational categories that the trays support are language, math, science, history, sensorial perception, and practical life developments.

www.montessorieducare.co.nz/images/montessori.jpg
  1. Materials used and their Instructional Purpose

What makes JMLAP unique? I pulled mainly form three different resources to develop JMLAP Explicit Lesson are Fine. But Maria Montessori believed that the child goes through developmental stages in which there exist windows of opportunity to learn through a certain form. So Jubilee Montessori incorporates the environment, the stage of the child, and other Montessori Philosophies into its core instructional system.

However, Robert Gagne has also rendered us a masterful, well thought of plan of Instruction. He speaks about scaffolding, task analysis, objectives, assessments, project based learning and other instructional techniques that I find useful.

Lastly, a wonderful language resource is the Orton-Gillingham method of reading, writing, and spelling. However, it is cumbersome, expensive and very arduous. The rules are very dry and cut and not fun nor easy for the child.

Course Development Process

  1. Creation of Jubilee Montessori

After getting my Bachelors Degree in Interdisciplinary Studies, and my Teachers Certification in Educational Technology, I yearned to move from my current money making job to a more meaningful career. Hoping to become a mother I also wanted something that would balance the act of motherhood with a lifelong (my life after my kids were on their own) meaningful work. Because of my husband’s provision of financial stability, I have been able to sacrifice financial gain and pursue a teaching career. Fast forward to actually having kids: no longer was teaching at the local school enough for me. The option seemed quite unattractive as I considered its minute financial gain, loss of quality time with my children and simply a very exhausting, payless, and time consuming job. So I carefully considered the possibility of teaching at home. First and foremost my limited teaching time and energy (more on that later on) would be concentrated on my children, particularly while they are within the absorbent age ranges of “before 5-7”. These I find are the fundamental years of establishing habits and philosophies that set the stage for the later years. Home Educating although intimidating, became an attraction. The problem was that my eldest daughter had already had formal schooling in a Montessori School and so first grade was her next developmentally appropriate step. However, she was only five. After much labor in the task of curriculum seeking, we as parents decided on one that although has not become my favorite in that it is lacking in tactile experiences, creative flashcards, scripted lessons for teacher, specific lesson goals and sufficient correlations to spiritual concerns. It is however, State Certified and has allowed her to start first grade under their supervision. For our family this was important because we wanted a certified institution to attest to her abilities. We didn’t want her future to hang on mom and dad’s possibly swayed point of viewed. Second problem/opportunity was that our chosen curriculum, although acceptable by most standards, was a bit lacking and a bit dull. So, I’ve taken this course with the purpose of seeking help and improving the curriculum we are using.

  1. Stakeholders and Roles They Play

There are several stakeholders in this curriculum: 1. Professional teacher • Studies, learns, and practices the curriculum and its philosophy in order to provide it in an engaging way to the students. • Assesses learning Style of child and use it to facilitate learning for the child. • Provides honest and corrective feedback to redirect learning but always in an encouraging and loving way, always finds something positive and encouraging in child’s work. • Uses Socratic and Probing Questioning to deepen understanding and encourage deep thinking, and reflection. • Mindfully speaks to either the work of the child or to the child’s heart. For example to address the child’s work, say, “this is a good job”, vs. “you are so good”. One addresses the quality of the work the other addresses the quality of the child. To address the child’s heart, a question is always helpful. For example, when the penmanship is sloppy, a good question is, “I see that your penmanship is dancing in the paper, are you a little tired today?” • Engages the child in the learning process and promotes active participation in lesson developing intrinsic learning habits. • Avails child of different experiences that bring life relevance to the lesson being taught. • Uses meaningful cues that trigger memory recall of a lesson. • Provides some kind of mirror like video tapes, audiotapes, observer’s notes, etc. for the purpose of improving lesson delivery, class participation, room environment etc. (Bloom, p. 238) • Takes care, upkeeps and guards the environment for safety, beauty and pleasantness. • Facilitates child’s interaction with the materials and • Observes, Assesses and Evaluates child’s work and development (Gettman, 1987, p. 17).

2. Home Educators – • Has same responsibility of the professional teacher, with the added tasks of : • Serving as a human model whose every action and choice powerfully and significantly influences the child, and • Shows examples and practice of lessons taught and learned, 24/7, 365 days, times the lifetime of the child, in prepared and non prepared environments!

3. Students • Devote time, discipline and energy into the curriculum. • Create aids that further encourage learning • Develop and Perform peer formative tests.

4. Families of Student • Support, encourage, extend and practice the curriculums’ philosophy into a family lifestyle.

5. Instructional Materials • Proprietary of Jubilee Montessori


Language Arts Program

Program Overview

The goal of this mini course is to introduce you to the JMLAP progression of becoming a great speller. This document, the Jubilee Montessori will describe the Spelling Segment of Jubilee Montessori’s Language Arts Program. Here I detail:

Needs Assessment

The instructional problem I have identified in most Language Arts Curriculum Programs for young students, is that it fails to empower students with skills that prevent the common shortfall of bad spelling practices. My intent is to create a Language Arts Curriculum that would allow home Educators (intended setting/participants) avoid the common pitfall of bad spelling. Many programs have tried to teach phonograms and rules that children manipulate and use to spell words. Others use “whole word” spelling instruction, where the students are given lists, memorize the spelling and then test onto mastery. Other programs, totally by pass explicit spelling lessons, hoping that correct spelling will happen implicitly as maturity of the student occurs. The current result of all of these programs is that many students are failing because the program is either cumbersome, too expensive, too time consuming or not occurring at all.

Learner Analysis

3 to 8 year old boys and girls whose first or second language is English. • Prerequisite Knowledge: none • Learning Style preferences: any since program is multi-sensory • Attitudes : will be nurtured

Expectations: Successful in Standardized Tests and beyond. There is a very basic questionnaire that helps place the child in the correct developmental phase of the program. There are no entry skills necessary. The child starts the program at whatever level he or she fits most comfortably in. Pre-requisites to consider: can the student: • Hear orally delivered communication • Read communications printed on page • Other things considered are prior learning experience, learning capability, schemas, ability traits (Gagne p 127/128 table 6.3)

Instructional Sequence

Overall the program is constructivist in nature The sequence was created with two principles in mind 1. Students need to have prerequisite skills for the work at hand. Many times we are paralyzed into doing something because we are feeling overwhelmed, fearful or inadequate appropriate. This panic is very paralyzing and destructive. It is a set up for failure. 2. The other caution is to avoid enthusiasm without wisdom. The child is encouraged to progress through a well thought of sequence so the child can be informed of the overall object to help him gain better understanding of the concept as a whole, but is encouraged to stay focused on the task at hand. 3. Learning is scaffold and Movement towards next step/target skill is only done when it does not exceed the students current human capacities (human capacities being such things as attention span, cognitive processing capacity (cognitive load) and physical, emotional mental or social developmental challenges, how well the child has accepted the culture of the classroom, etc).


Instructional Curriculum Map

JMLAP Spelling

Introduction to the Spelling Course

Spelling Progression

Function Necessary for Success Method of Attainment Work Trays Syllabication/ Segmentation • Be told correct pronunciation • Follow Syllabication Rules • Good Teacher • Explicit instruction • Drill and Practice Phonogram Recollection • Correspond phoneme to grapheme (that is correspond sound heard to the (letter(s) that represent it). • Know the Phonograms • Graphic Organizers • Fun and Catchy Songs • Games • Flashcards Rules familiarity • Sort Phonograms • Reason Correct Phonogram • Write Phonograms • Penmanship • Moveable alphabet • Fine motor Skill • Instruction of Manuscript • Practice

In my first unit, I briefly introduce the concept of syllabication. In a second unit I then I introduce what a phonogram is and illustrate how the JMLAP would teach two of them. Lastly in a third unit, I introduce one rule, to show how the JMLAP would teach this rule and effectively empower students to be excellent spellers.

Unit I Introduction to Syllabication

Unit Overview In this first unit I briefly introduce the concept of syllabication. Syllabication is the act of breaking a word apart into its component sounds. Another term interchanged with syllabication is decoding or segmentation of a word. Once the word can be properly segmented, decoded, or broken up into its syllables, we then apply rules that dictate which grapheme we can use to construct, with phonograms, what we hear. We build a word, or spell a word by applying phonetic rules that dictate correct spelling. For example, if we are asked to spell the word watch. We will learn that: 1. The word watch can be syllabicated like this /w/-/a/-/ch/. 2. The sound (phoneme) /ch/ can be represented with the grapheme ch or tch. Like in chip and witch. 3. Lastly, at we apply the spelling rule of ch and tch and we spell our word as watch (the correct spelling), not as wach (the incorrect spelling).

  1. Sample Lesson

Introduction to Syllabication The Explicit Lesson: • Syllables make word • Say any word out loud and you can hear how many syllables it has • A syllable is a piece of a word which you can say without a break • Each syllable contain only one vowel sound • Sometimes the silent e is added at the end of a word’s syllable, only because very syllable must have a vowel (their are higher level understanding of syllabication, but this is sufficient knowledge for a pre-third grader)

  1. Prerequisite Skills

1. Ability to do basic penmanship 2. Auditory discrimination among sounds 3. Experience with Ryming and blends Test of poor auditory discrimination: • problems identifying speech sounds • poor listening skills, especially when there is background noise • difficulty discriminating between similar words • difficulty with rhyming activities • poor articulation of sounds and words • kinesthetic strengths (and learns better through using concrete materials and practical experiences) • visual strengths (and enjoy learning through using visual materials such as charts, maps, videos, demonstrations) • good motor skills (and have strengths in design and technology, art, PE and games) (http://www.teachingexpertise.com/articles/activities-to-develop-auditory-discrimination-skills-1101) • gate, mate, weight, late • free, three, tree, see, she q1

  1. Target Objectives

Given an explicit lesson introducing syllabication, the child demonstrates the syllabication of a word, by successfully performing several syllabication games. The lesson can be repeated until the child performance syllabication with at least 90% accuracy.

  1. Performance Objective

After child has had several sensorial experiences that refine auditory discrimination of sounds (rhyming, recognizing and classifying beginning middle and ending sounds, etc.), the child discriminates the different chunks/parts/syllables of a word, by playing several games. Play as many games as necessary to create a comfortable experience for the child. 1-2 a day for several days. 1. Morse Code Game. The teacher says a word, then the child claps it back in rhythm with the syllables (s)he detects. For example the teachers says hippopotamus hip•po•pot•a•mus the child(ren) should clap, clap, clap clap clap matching the syllables of the word. Practice for at least 5 minutes per day. 2. Interactive Computer game that says word and the child has to click and drag how many syllables the word has http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/spelling/soundandspell/syllables/flash0.shtml 3. Count the syllables in familiar words (objects for younger children) 4. Create syllable families 5. Create a project based lesson where a group of students have to find: Find object in the room that have the same number of syllables

  1. Learning Activity

In an project based activity, the children , the children demonstrate understanding of syllabication by creating their own project involving syllabication, or find objects around the room that they can group together as a family of] [the students correct and reflect with each other the reasoning for the syllabication of the word. Resource students can check for correct syllable: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Syllabicate

  1. Assessment

Playing I spy with my little eyes, • Write about ten words on card stock and place them faced up on a table • Place a basket with numbers 1-5 written on them. • Teacher says I spy with my little eyes a word with _ syllables ? • Child identifies a word written on the index card (or objects for younger –non reader) something that begin with the specified number of syllables and puts it in the correct numbered box. • Assess about ten words per sitting. o More experienced children can write their new spelling words to include them in the activity tray o For younger children, and as a form of self directive, words with the same number of syllable can be on the same color paper. By playing knock knock, who is there? • Write about ten words on an index card and place them faced down on a table. • Student knocks on any card she wants • Teacher asks who is there? • Child says a __ syllable word. For younger children that card can have the written word on one side and a picture of the word on the other side. The word may even be written in its syl•lab•i•cat•ed form. • Assess about ten words per sitting.  

Unit II Introduction to Phonograms

Unit Overview In this second unit, I introduce the concept of a grapheme, phoneme and phonogram. I teach/introduce two phonograms, giving an example of how JMLAP would teach phonograms. What is a phonogram? A phonogram is a combination of the concepts of a grapheme and a phoneme. • A grapheme is the symbol used to represent a phonogram. 1. Graphemes can be a single letter like, the 26 letters of the alphabet. 2. They can be a two letter combination like, ch, sh, or th. These are called digraphs. 3. They can also be three letter combinations like, tch, ing, and eau. These are called Trigraphs. • A phoneme is the sound the grapheme represents. For example, the grapheme ‘a’ has three phonemes: 1. ‘a’ can say /a/, like in apron. This sound or phoneme is called, “the long a sound”. 2. ‘a’ can also say /a/, like in cat. This sound or phoneme is called, “the short a sound”, and lastly, 3. ‘a’ can also say /ah/, like in America. This sound or phoneme is called, “the schwa sound”. Phonograms can be used to enhance spelling capabilities. If we become familiar with the 70 most used phonograms in the English language, we can use this information to help us become better in the skill of spelling. ch and tch are 2 of the 70 common phonograms used in the English Language. Here is a sample lesson how the JMLAP would teach the phonograms ch and tch.

  1. Sample Lesson Introduction to Phonograms tch and ch
  2. Prerequisite Skills

1 Syllabication mastery to about 90% 2 knowledge of at least 3 other phonograms wh, th, sh

  1. Target Objectives

Shown a Flashcard of the phonograms ch and tch, state the correct sound (phoneme ) to match the grapheme (the written letter(s)), by saying it back to the teacher; practice onto memory.

  1. Performance Objective

Given a shoebox with fine yellow cornmeal on the inside, the child, identifies the correct grapheme of the sound heard and writes it in the yellow cornmeal using finger and demonstrating correct formation of letters.

  1. Learning Activity

SWAT PHONOGRAM FLIES! GAME MATERIALS: •A flyswatter that is specially prepared with Velcro glued to one side for each player •Choose a set of 10 or more phonograms to practice •Velcro dots that represent flies, one for each phonogram card (be sure to use the side of Velcro that matches the one on the flyswatter so the flies will “stick” when swatted) PLAYERS: This game can be played by one, two, four or more players and a person to call the phonograms OBJECT OF GAME: To collect the most flies. GET READY TO PLAY: •Fasten phonogram cards to a vertical surface or lay them out on the floor leaving a generous amount of room between each card •Place a Velcro fly on each card without covering the phonogram. •Holding the flyswatter, each player stands or sits close enough to the cards to be able to reach them with his/her flyswatter (if playing with only one student, sitting on the floor or standing at the wall will work equally well; if playing with two or more, standing to a wall gives more freedom for movement so they can race each other) HOW TO PLAY: •Caller says a phonogram. •Players echo the phonogram. •Caller says, “SWAT IT!” •Players race to see who can swat it first. If four or more are playing, have students play as teams, taking turns. •The player who “kills” the fly has to say the phonogram again to score a point. •Keep score by collecting the Velcro flies. •Player or team with the most flies is the winner. Resource: http://www.nine-enterprises.com/pdf/phonogram_games.pdf

  1. Assessment

After the first 10 phonograms have been introduced and practiced, a spelling test in animated and interactive website will ask the child to demonstrate knowledge of using the correct phonogram by asking the child to type or click the missing (ch, sh, th, wh) phonograms to spell the word correctly. http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/phonics/games/ch_sh_wh_th_sounds.jsp

Unit III Introduction to Rule Application

Unit Overview In the last unit I introduce a sample method of introducing a rule in the JMLAP. Once we know how to: a) syllabicated a word (break it up into its component part), and b) the 70 most common phonograms, we can c) Use rules to put phonograms together so that we can “create the words”, or more commonly said, spell the word.

The last component of a good speller is someone who can adroitly apply phonic and spelling rules that guide proper selection of the available phonograms.

Here is a sample lesson how the JMLAP would teach Rule for ch and tch

  1. Sample Lesson ”Introduction to Rule Application”
  2. Prerequisite Skills

1. know the phonemic sound /ch/ and 2. know the grapheme ch and tch their spelling 3. Recognize /ch/, as the sound of phonograms ch and tch

  1. Target Objectives

Given the rule written in a poetic form on a beautiful presentation such as below , the child will state the rule for using ch and the rule for using tch by repeating the poem, first with cues and then without cues onto accurate memory. Rule for ch and tch

  1. Performance Objective

Given a list of words requiring ch and tch to spell the /ch/ sound, demonstrate correct spelling of the word by selecting the correct phonogram, using the Rules for ch and tch, with 100% accuracy in an interactive website. http://rbeaudoin333.homestead.com/files/digraphs_consonant/ini_digraph_prac_1.html

  1. Learning Activity

Use drill and practice in an interactive animated computer game to facilitate students’ learning the use of ch and tch to spell words with the /ch/ sound.

  1. Assessment

After lesson and practice activities, the student will fill in a crossword puzzle in an interactive crossword puzzle website. http://www.northwood.org.uk/crossword%20ch%20tch.htm to validate with 100% accuracy, correct use of the rules for ch and tch.

Review of the Mini Course

In this Mini course I have tried to give insight into the three building blocks that develop good spelling skills.

The three essential skills necessary for good spelling are: 1. Acute syllabication skills, 2. Unambiguous knowledge of the Phonograms, and 3. Comprehensive and exhaustive knowledge of Phonic and Spelling Rules.

Another important note is that in this wiki platform I use: / / to denote a sound and,

‘  ‘ to denote the individual letter(s).


Resources