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Turning Learning Upside Down: A Flipped Classroom Approach

Flipped Classroom style lessons are a growing trend in higher education. Many instructors focus on the pre-class recordings, putting little thought into why to use this strategy or how to plan and design the lesson. This project will focus on developing the following student capabilities (these ideas may be changed throughout the process):

  • Describe a flipped classroom approach
  • List the advantages of using flipped learning
  • Select appropriate content for flipped learning
  • Identify characteristics of an engaging pre-class assignment
  • Integrate higher order learning activities during class time
  • Design a lesson using a flipped classroom approach

Needs Assessment

Step 1: Describe your Intent

Instructional Problem: With technological advances in society, such as the internet, social media, and mobile devices; the way students process information has changed. “Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach.” (Prensky, 2001) Learners are now constantly engaged in actively searching for, filtering, composing, and sharing information. Traditional lectures involve instructors speaking about the content throughout a class period. This style is less effective with the current generation of students. Yet many instructors have been trained in this traditional model, and are not equipped with the knowledge or skills to change their teaching style, to accommodate the need for greater student engagement, active learning strategies, and learner centered environments.


Nature of Learning: Flipped Classroom is an approach that allows instructors to take advantage of new technologies that enable media rich, interactive, pre-class lectures. With the "lecture" moved to before class, class time is restructured to provide opportunities for students to practice skills and apply information. Instructors (students of this mini course) will learn:

  • Basic format of flipped classroom (verbal information)
  • Advantages of using this format (attitudes)
  • How to select appropriate content (intellectual skills)
  • Techniques to engage students in pre-class lectures (intellectual skills)
  • Techniques to engage and support learning during in class activities (intellectual skills)

Step 2: Gather Information

Learner Analysis: The learners for this course will most likely be faculty in higher education, who have attained a masters degree or Ph.D. Many of the learners may have little training or knowledge about pedagogy. Affective factors include intrinsic motivation to become more effective teachers, extrinsic motivation to achieve higher student scores and better course evaluations, and potentially both positive and negative attitudes to this strategy. Some learners may feel eager to learn more about flipped learning, while others may be skeptical and reluctant to learn or try this. I anticipate learning styles to be varied among the faculty. Prerequisite knowledge and skills include:

  • Knowledge of traditional lecture format
  • Familiarity with utilizing current instructional technology (internet, screen casting, video)
  • Basic understanding of constructivism

Context Analysis: This mini course will be conducted online as a self paced module. The format of the course will include instructional video, media, activities, collaboration with peers, and reflection.

Instructional Solution: This mini course will help higher education instructors to learn the flipped classroom strategy in order to better engage their students.

Step 3: Identify Goals

Goals:

  • Educate learners about flipped learning
  • Motivate learners to try the flipped classroom approach
  • Educate learners about features of flipped learning that can engage students and facilitate effective learning
  • Deliver lesson in a similar format to a flipped classroom

Performance Objectives

When asked to explain a flipped classroom model, the learner classifies the flipped classroom approach by writing a definition that includes the necessary components.

When asked “Why should you use a flipped classroom model?”, the learner will state the advantages of utilizing a flipped classroom by composing a written list of at least three beneficial characteristics.

Given a set of lessons, the learner will demonstrate selecting appropriate content by choosing a lesson from their teaching experience.

When asked to try a new teaching method, the learner will choose to implement a flipped classroom lesson in their teaching.

When asked to flip a classroom, the learner will generate a plan for a flipped classroom style lesson by designing a pre-class lecture and in class activity.

Task Analysis

Mini Course Target Objective:

When asked to flip a classroom, the learner will generate a plan for a flipped classroom style lesson by designing a pre-class lecture and in class activity.


Lesson 1 Target Objective:

Given a set of lessons, the learner will demonstrate selecting appropriate content by choosing a lesson from their teaching experience.

Enabling Objectives:
  • When asked to explain a flipped classroom model, the learner classifies the flipped classroom approach by writing a definition that includes the necessary components.
  • When asked “Why should you use a flipped classroom model?”, the learner will state the advantages of utilizing a flipped classroom by composing a written list of at least three beneficial characteristics.
Prerequisites:
  • Knowledge of traditional lecture as an instructional method
  • Knowledge of project based learning
  • Knowledge of a subject area and experience teaching the topic


Lesson 2 Target Objective:

Given a traditional lesson, the learner will generate a plan for a pre class lecture by developing a storyboard, script, and reflection questions.

Enabling Objectives:

  • When asked “How is a pre class lecture is beneficial?”, the learner will state characteristics to engage students through the pre class video and reflection questions by selecting them from a list.
  • When asked to plan a pre class lecture video, the learner will generate a storyboard, by composing a set of slides that includes text, images, and multimedia elements.
  • When asked to plan a pre class lecture video, the learner will generate a script, by listing the important talking points for the lecture.
  • When asked to compose a knowledge check, the learner will generate questions in writing, to promote student self reflection.
Prerequisites:
  • Knowledge of creating a storyboard, or PowerPoint slides for a lecture
  • Ability to search and find appropriate media for topic
  • Ability to write assessment questions based on a topic

Lesson 3 Target Objective:

Given a set of activities, the learner will demonstrate identifying an appropriate activity by selecting an activity that will engage students and encourage development of higher order skills.

Enabling Objectives:
  • Given a set of lesson concepts, the learner will demonstrate identifying appropriate content for an in class activity by choosing concepts from the lesson for students to practice.
  • When asked to how to create an engaging in class activity, the learner will state characteristics of activities that encourage student engagement.
  • When asked “What are higher order learning skills?”, the learner classifies higher order skills by writing a definition that includes examples of the types of skills.
Prerequisites:
  • Knowledge of constructivism
  • Knowledge of Bloom’s Taxonomy

Supportive Objectives:

When asked to try a new teaching method, the learner will choose to implement a flipped classroom lesson in their teaching.

Curriculum Map

File:ICM MMS.pdf


Course Outline

Introduction
Description and scope of course
Unit Objectives
Link to Unit 1

Unit 1: Using a Flipped Classroom Approach
Graphic of Bored Students with Tagline to capture attention
List of Unit Goals
Student reflection of traditional vs real world learning
What is a Flipped Classroom?

How is a Flipped Classroom beneficial?

  • Flexibility
  • Personalized Learning
  • Technology
  • Interaction
  • Parental Involvement

What type of lesson should you be used for a Flipped Classroom approach?

  • Chunking of content
  • Images and Multimedia
  • Open Learning Content Materials
  • Concepts where students need to practice or apply information to reach a deeper understanding

Test Your Understanding and Feedback - 2 multiple choice question quiz
Apply your Knowledge - 3 open ended application questions
Putting it all together - video - http://splicd.com/4tYDiOYyjiw/200/414


Unit 2: Planning the Pre-class lesson
Example of Video lecture - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZpHfTO8SW7U
Reflection on what makes a engaging lecture
List of Unit Goals
How should I plan my storyboard?

  • Format
  • Source
  • Length
  • Post production edits

How can creating a script contribute to an engaging pre-class lecture?

  • Amount
  • Character

How can I compose an effective knowledge check?

  • Main points
  • Questions to test understanding
  • Questions to promote self learning

Test Your Understanding and Feedback - 3 question quiz
Apply your Knowledge - Compose the pre-class plan
Putting the Plan into Action


Unit 3: Planning the Classroom Activity
Typical Day in Flipped Classroom - video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRevpLhw06w&feature=relmfu
Reflection on classroom activity and structure
List of Unit Goals
What are higher order skills?

How can I design an engaging activity?

What topics should my activity cover?

  • Challenging concepts
  • Areas that require practice
  • Areas that require application

Test Your Understanding and Feedback - 3 question quiz
Apply your Knowledge - Compose the activity plan
Putting the Plan into Action


Wrap Up
Review of topics learned
Final thoughts and suggestions

References and Resources

Bergmann, Jonathan, and Aaron Sams. Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Everyday. International Society for Technology in Education, 2012.

Bergmann, Jonathan, Jerry Overmyer, and Brett Wilie. "The Flipped Class: Myths vs. Reality." The Daily Riff 14, April 2012: n.pag. Web. 19, Oct. 2012.

Bloom's Pyramid. Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain. 5 Dec. 2012. http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/bloomstax.htm.

Gerstein, Jackie, "The Flipped Classroom Model: A Full Picture." User Generated Education. 13, June 2011. 19, Oct. 2012.

Khan, Salman. “Let's use video to reinvent education.” March 2011. TED. Online Video Clip. 6 October 2012.

Prensky, Marc. "Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1." On the Horizon 9.5 (2001): 1 - 6. Online.

Spencer, Dan, Deb Wolf and Aaron Sams. "Are you Ready to Flip?" The Daily Riff 24, June 2011: n. pag. Web. 19, Oct. 2012.

The Flipped Classroom Infographic. Knewton. 12 Dec. 2012. www.knewton.com.