This is the end of the mini-course, but not the end of developing and implementing historical thinking skills in the classroom. Viator (2012) records that teaching students to use historical thinking skills is one way to help students understand that history is complex and multifaceted. It requires numerous opportunities of examining various sources that reveal diverse perspectives that promote critical thinking and analysis. Strategies, such as facilitating discussions among students either in whole group, cooperative learning groups, or even pairs can be used as a beginning to promote historical thinking. Because historical thinking is a concept that is often associated with abstract concepts, social studies educators must recognize that effective instruction can radically change how students become historical thinkers, which is a crucial characteristic of competent citizens in a global, multicultural, and democratic society.

Course-Level Objectives

Learners who complete this course will be able to:

1. Explain the importance of historical thinking skills and how they can be used in the classroom.

2. Correctly evaluate the reliability of narrative accounts and assess students on their understanding of the concept.

3. Recognize skills of historical inquiry and produce a user-friendly tool for students to access.

References and Resources

Drake, F., & Brown, S. (2003). A Systematic Approach to Improve Students' Historical Thinking. The History Teacher, 36(4), 465-489. doi:10.2307/1555575

Mandell, N. (2008). Thinking like a Historian: A Framework for Teaching and Learning. OAH Magazine of History, 22(2), 55-63. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25162174

Viator, M. G. (2012). Developing Historical Thinking through Questions. Social Studies, 103(5), 198-200.

Waring, S., & Robinson, K. (2010). Developing Critical and Historical Thinking Skills in Middle Grades Social Studies. Middle School Journal, 42(1), 22-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23047653

Whitney G. Blankenship (2015) Teaching and Assessing Historical Thinking: Reading Like a Historian and Beyond the Bubble, Theory & Research in Social Education, 43:4, 568- 576, DOI: 10.1080/00933104.2016.1099596

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