Unit III: Matching Targets with Assessments
Because my learning targets include a product (writing) it is important to realize then that my learning targets inherently include knowledge, reasoning, and skill as well. Consider this excerpt from Stiggins' work "Classroom Assessment for Student Learning:"
"In general, if a target is at the knowledge level, it will have no reasoning, skill, or product components. Reasoning targets do have knowledge components, but they do not require skill or product components. Skills targets require underlying knowledge and reasoning, but not products. Product targets will require knowledge and reasoning, and might be underpinned by skill targets as well." (p. 80)
This has implications for assessment. When I am assessing whether or not my students have reached these learning targets I am not only assessing the product. I must also assess their knowledge, their ability to reason, their skills in reading and communicating ideas in an organized manner. Consider this passage from Stiggin's work "Classroom Assessment for Student Learning:"
"When deconstructing standards, remember you are looking at what the content standard requires students to know and be able to do, not how you will assess it. Because the significance of this statement might not be immediately obvious, consider the standard, “compare and contrast democracies with other forms of government,” a reasoning target. This standard requires knowledge of democracy and other forms of government and how government can affect people. It also requires practice in comparing and contrasting—a reasoning proficiency—using the knowledge of different forms of government. So, there are two, and only two, parts to this content standard—knowledge and reasoning."(p.233)
How can one develop accurate assessments knowing this? If we look at my new revised learning target we will have a case study to look into.
I can listen, communicate, read, and write in order to synthesize an understanding of how American culture is diverse yet unified by certain ideals.
Included in this long-term learning target is knowledge, reasoning, skill, and product so, we need to be sure to assess all of them.
How can one do that?
Analyze the file below. It is a chart that shows what kinds of assessment go well with different kinds of targets.
So, for the knowledge part of my targets, a good match is selected response and extended written response. It would also be beneficial if I asked them to orally communicate their knowledge. It would be good to do a lot of performance assessment for reasoning capability. It is possible that the student can exhibit their reasoning capabilities by extended written response. To evaluate skills I should observe performance. The product is best evaluated through extended written response.