Introduction to CFT and History


Tammy Clark
Tammy's Portfolio Page
Using Cognitive Flexibility Theory to Teach History

Welcome to the Course

Welcome to Using Cognitive Felxibility Theory (CFT) to Teach History! I hope you find this course useful in your own teaching. While the course is meant to address the uses of CFT in an online setting, it can be used just as well in a face-to-face (f2f) course. Take a minute to go through the introduction. At the bottom of each section of the course, you will find a link to the next section. At the top of each section, you will find links to the rest of my wiki pages. I hope you get as much out of this course as I did preparing it. Enjoy!

Course Objectives

By the end of this course, you should be able to:

  • Define CFT, ill-structured domain, case-based learning and epistemic beliefs
  • Develop a survey for your students based on epistemic beliefs
  • Begin composition of a history course using CFT

See a graphical representation for objectives and activities in this course: File:Objectives CFT.doc


For more information on CFT, ill-structured domains, and epistemic beliefs, see the following article and studies:

  • Auntie EMM Sends Electronic Mail to Oz. (1995). International Journal of Instructional Media, 22(3) 245-54.
  • Balcytiene, A. (1999). Exploring Individual Processes of Knowledge Construction with Hypertext. Instructional Science, 27(3-4) 303-28.
  • Boyd, F., Ikpeze, C. (June 2007). Navigating a Literacy Landscape: Teaching Conceptual Understanding with Multiple Text Types. Journal of Literacy Research 39(2), 217-248.
  • Carvalho, A. (2000). Complex Knowledge Representation in a Web Course.
  • Demetriadis, S., Pombortsis, A. (1999). Novice Student Learning in Case Based Hypermedia Environment: A Quantitative Study. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8(2) 241-69.
  • Fitzgerald, G., et. al. (1997). An Interactive Multimedia Program To Enhance Teacher Problem-Solving Skills Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Design and Outcomes. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 6(1) 47-76.
  • Godshalk, V., Harvey, D., Moller, L. (October 2004). The Role of Learning Tasks on Attitude Change Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Systems. Learning Sciences Journal, 13(4) 507-526.
  • Harvey, D., Godshalk, V., Milheim, W. (2002). Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext to Develop Sexual Harassment Cases. Computers in the Schools, 18(1) 213-229.
  • Jacobson, M., Spiro, R. (1995). Hypertext Learning Environments, Cognitive Flexibility, and the Transfer of Complex Knowledge: An Empirical Investigation.

Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12(4) 301-33.

  • Liaw, S., Huang, H. (2000). Enhancing Interactivity in Web-based Instruction: A Review of the Literature. Educational Technology, 40(3) 41-45.
  • Lima, M., Koehler, M., Spiro, R. (2004). Collaborative Interactivity and Integrated Thinking in Brazilian Business Schools Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertexts: The Panteon Project. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31(4) 371-406.
  • Ludwig, B. (2000). Web-Based Instruction: Theoretical Differences in Treatment of Subject Matter.
  • Oliver, K. (1996). A Critical Analysis of Hypermedia and Virtual Learning Environments.
  • Parker, D., Rossner-Merrill, V. (1998) Socialization of Distance Education: The Web as E**nabler.
  • Rossner-Merrill, V. et. al. (1998). Using Constructivist Instructional Design Featured in Two Online Courses: Notes from the Field. Educational Media International, 35(4) 282-88.
  • Simonson, N. (1998). Design Considerations in Converting a Stand-Up Training Class to Web-Based Training: Some Guidelines from Cognitive Flexibility Theory.

Journal of Interactive Instruction Development, 10(3) 3-9.

  • Spiro, R. J. et. al. (2003). Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Hypermedia for Complex Learning, Adaptive Knowledge Application, and Experience Acceleration. Educational Technology, 43(5) 5-10.
  • Staninger, S. (1994). Hypertext Technology: Educational Consequences. Educational Technology, 34(6) 51-53.

Begin Unit 1