Design Project: Theme Project - Native American Indians

Project Topic and Needs Assessment

My project topic is "Theme Project - Native American Indian Culture" I chose this topic because Native American Indians’ history is a big part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum. Although the fourth grade curriculum focuses mostly on the Native American Indian tribes from New York State, the topic is very vast. I believe the theme is worthy of students’ time and energy because it is a topic they are required to learn, but also because Native American Indian culture can be very interesting. They can learn about the different tribes that were present not only in New York, but around the entire United States and Canada as well. Native American Indians played a big part in our history. The students can learn about the lifestyles of the Native American Indians, focusing on their different hunting techniques, their housing, what games the children played, the roles of the different members of the tribe, tribe colors, animals and clothing. They can learn how the culture of Native American Indians helped play a role in how Americans learned how to survive in the New World.

The students can also learn many different legends and myths of the Native American Indians. They can compare stories from different tribes to see what aspects are similar or different. They can learn how story telling was an important part of the Native American Indian culture. They can learn about different dances and what each dance was intended for. Students can learn how to compare and contrast by reading Native American Indian legends and myths and comparing them to our common stories and compare the stories among the different tribes.

As part of this theme, the students could go on a field trip to a Native American Indian museum, such as the Iroquois Museum in Cobleskill, New York. The museum displays various types of art which ranges in date from early times until the present. The children’s part of the museum gets the children involved in the learning. There is a table where the children can make beaded bracelets and another one where they can make corn husk dolls. There were also musical instruments they could pick up and play with, real animal furs to touch and pieces of clothing they could try on. There are also Native American Indian people who work for the museum and could tell the children some of their native stories.

Performance Objectives

Overview

The students can learn a variety of things while engaging in this topic. They can learn about the different tribes that were present not only in New York, but around the entire United States and Canada as well. Native American Indians played a big part in the different wars which took place in our history. The students can learn about the lifestyles of the Native American Indians, focusing on their different hunting techniques, their housing, how tools were made, what games the children played, the roles of the different members of the tribe, tribe colors, animals and clothing and so on.

The students can also learn many different legends and myths of the Native American Indians. They can compare stories from different tribes to see what aspects are similar or different. They can learn how story telling was an important part of the Native American Indian culture. They can learn about different dances and what each dance was intended for.

As part of this theme, the students could go on a field trip to a Native American Indian museum, such as the Iroquois Museum in Cobleskill, New York. The museum displays various types of art which ranges in date from early times until the present. The children’s part of the museum gets the children involved in the learning. There is a table where the children can make beaded bracelets and another one where they can make corn husk dolls. There were also musical instruments they could pick up and play with, real animal furs to touch and pieces of clothing they could try on. There are also Native American Indian people who work for the museum and could tell the children some of their native stories.

Learning Objectives

What students will know and be able to do as a result of engaging in this theme:

• Students will be able to state at least two different types of Native American Indian housing.

• Students will be able to describe or draw at least two different types of Native American Indian housing.

• Students will be able to state how some Native American Indian tools were made and what materials may be used.

• Students will be able to describe the different types of clothing worn by the Native American Indians

• Students will be able to identify different vocabulary related to Native American Indian culture.

• Students will get hands on experience to make and be able to describe what a dream catcher is.

• Students will be able to represent important life events using symbols and pictures.

• Students will use fine gross motor skills while beading.

• Students will be able to create patterns while beading.

• Students will use their sense of touch to help them identify hidden objects.

• Students will be able to analyze items for what the items were made from.

• Students will understand the uses of given material and importance of the material to the Native American Indian culture

• Students will tell how they feel about a given art piece based on their own opinions and feelings.

• Students will use their knowledge to answer discussion questions about readings related to Native American Indians.

• Students will use their knowledge and be able to create an open–minded portrait on the main character of the book.

• Students will use critical analysis to help them write corresponding captions to colored pictures.

• Student will be able to follow step by step instructions.

• Students will be able to write their own “Native American Indian Legend” based on what they have learned about them.

• Students will be able to compare and contrast similar Native American Tribal legends/stories.

• Students will be able to research for information

Task Analysis

Theme Outline

The theme is set up as an outline because for me personally as a teacher, it is easier for me to view and stay organized. Having the outline gives a wide basis to work from when presenting the theme to students. Forst, have the students complete a KWL chart as a group so you can see what they are most interested in learning about the theme, while being able to add what you would like the students to learn about the theme as well. The issue when organizing the theme was the vast amount of information related to the topic. The theme project as a whole would take a couple of months to completely explore, and there is the possibility students may get bored with the theme and not gather as much information as you would hope they would learn from the project. Keep the time frame for the theme for a month, but be flexible to shorten or extend the theme based on the interest of the students.

Native American Indians Theme Outline

• New York State Native American Indians

o Tribe names

o Locations

o Types of housing used

o Hunters, gathers, or fishers

o Iroquois League of Nations

• United States Native American Indians

o Tribe names

o Locations

o Types of housing used

o Hunters, gathers, or fishers

• Food

o Hunters

 Who hunted

 What animals were the primary source of food

 What tools were used

 How were the tools made

 Bow and arrow

 Hatchet

 knives

o Fishers

 Who fished

 What tools were used

 How were tools made

 Fishing poles

 Nets

o Gathers

 Who gathered

 What types of food

 Did they grow themselves

 How

 What tools used

 How were tools made

• Clothing

o Types of clothing

 What did men wear

 What did women wear

 What did children/babies wear

o What was clothing made from

 Who made it

o Special Clothing

 Significance of clothing

 Tribal significance

• Art and Material Things

o How were things made

 Methods

 Resources

 Animal bones

 Animal skins

 What types

 How did they make different colors

o Purpose

 Food preparation

 Decoration

 Spirit related

• Legends and Stories

o How were they told

o Purpose

o Who told them and why

o Compare and contrast

 Similar stories from different tribes

• Tribal Structure

o Family structure

 Jobs of each member

o “Governmental” Structure

 jobs of each member

 roles

• History

o New York State History

 Wars

 Special treaties

o United States History

 Wars

 Special treaties

 First Thanksgiving

 Role of Native American Indians

 What foods were brought

• Influential Native American Indians

o Role in their history

o Role in New York State history

o Role in United States history

I blocked the theme for five weeks, focusing on the culture of Native American Indians instead of the history.

Week 1: KWL Chart, Housing

 KWL Chart – Find out what students’ already know and want to learn, adding what I would like them to learn as well.

 Housing – focus on the different types of housing used by different tribes, what materials were used to build their houses and why certain types of housing were used.

Week 2: Tools and Clothing

 Clothing – what materials were used to make the clothing, how did they get different colors, who made the clothing, purpose of certain clothing

 Wampum Belts – purpose, students can make their own.

Week 3: Crafts

 Reflection of Native American Indians’ arts and crafts

 Purpose behind different pieces, such as dream catchers

 Materials used and why

Week 4: Legends/Lore

 Compare and contrast similar stories from different tribes.

 Stories through pictures – why pictures

 Students can create their own stories

Week 5: Culture Changes, Wrap-up, Revisit KWL Chart

 Cheyenne Again – Native American Indians’ forced to give up their culture; how do you think they felt – Open-Minded Portraits

 Finish up any unfinished projects from previous weeks

 Revisit KWL Chart to add what we learned and to see if there is interest beyond what we have already covered.

Description of the Project

I would begin the project by presenting the theme and having the students complete as KWL chart as a group. Many of the activities, I would like to do in center based work when possible, and I have provided lesson plans below to reflect what these centers may look like in the classroom. I would also like to focus on Native American Indian housing during the first week of the theme project. Students will look at different types of housing, what tribes used them and why, and what materials they used to build them. During this week, I will explain the whole theme project and assign the students their tribes.

During the second week, I would like the students to focus on the different types of clothing used by different tribes. The students will study what types of clothing the Native American Indians used, what materials they used, how they made them, the purpose behind specific pieces. I have included a lesson plan on wampum belts which play a specific role in Native American Culture.

During the third week, students will focus on Native American Indian crafts, such as dream catcher, pottery, etc. Students will look at different crafts both in picture form and pieces from my own collection. Students will reflect on each piece and learn about the significance behind certain crafts, such as the legend behind the dream catcher.

The fourth week of the theme project will focus on different legends and lore of the Native American Indians. There are many stories which have similar content or purpose, such as to tell how people began (creation stories), but are specific to different tribes. Students will learn how to compare and contrast stories. I would also like them to develop their own legend based on what they learn from the Native American Indian stories. Students will also learn how these stories were passed on from generation to generation as books were not part of Native American Indian culture. There are many books which contain several different stories and legends from different tribes. Some of these books are broken down into sections so the reader knows what all the stories in the section are about, such as the creation of the land. Students can listen to or read some of these stories and compare and contrast them.

The fifth and final week of the theme will focus on the change in culture as the white man came into the Native American Indian world. We will also revisit our KWL chart to see what we have learned over the past weeks. The students will also have time to finish any unfinished projects from the previous weeks. During this week, I would also like to take them on a field trip to a local museum, such as the Iroquois Museum in Cobleskill, NY, as part of the closure of the theme.

Informational and nonfiction books would play a role in the classroom as well. Students will listen to and read stories, such as Cheyenne Again. From these stories they will gather opinions about how the character(s) in the book may have felt. I have a lesson plan provided for how the students may go about this.

Whole Theme Project

The students will each be given a specific tribe they will study closely throughout the theme project. During the theme project, the students will research specifics related to their own tribe, such as what kind of housing they used and why, the different clans within their tribe and the clan colors and so on. At the end of the project, the students will create a classroom book. Each student is responsible for a page or two within that book which talks about the tribe they were assigned.

Possible Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan 1

Lesson Plan #1 (Week 2)

Unit Title or Subject Area: Native American Indian Art Interest Center

Grade Level: 4th grade

Instructional Objectives:

• Students will use fine and gross motor skills while beading.

• Students will be able to represent important life events using symbols and pictures.

• Student will be able to follow step by step instructions.

• Students will be able to state the purpose of wampum belts.

• Students will be able to state the history behind wampum belts.

• Students will learn what kind of tribe the Iroquois’ were.

Materials:

Wampum belts

• Pre-cut fabric with names written or beaded on

• Fabric markers

• Picture/outline of clan animal

• History information on wampum belts

Beading

• Pony beads (mostly in Earth tones)

• Hemp string or beading cord

• scissors

Headdress

• Construction paper pre cut into 20x2 inches (1 for every student) and 12x2inches (2 for every student)

• Feathers

• Cotton balls

• Glue

• Stapler with staples

• Markers, colored pencils or crayons

Coloring

• Native American Indian related coloring pages

• Crayons, colored pencils or markers

• Pencils

• Lined paper

• Stapler

Procedure:

Introduce the interest center to the students. “This center revolves around Native American Indian art. The four activities include decorating your wampum belts, making a head dress, making a bracelet or necklace using beads, and coloring pages. Everyone needs to do the wampum belt activity, so we will all start the wampum belts as a whole group. You may choose to do one of the other activities. Remember, no more than four students in a center at one time.”

Activity #1: Wampum belts

1. Tell the students the history and purpose of a wampum belt in Native American Indian culture.

2. Every student should have their wampum belt from the beginning of the day. They should take the wampum belts off so they can now decorate them.

3. Tell the students they should include their clan animal outline on the belt. The students should also include symbols to represent important events of their life.

4. Have the students share one or two of their pictures or symbols on their wampum belt if they would like to.

Activity #2: Beading

1. Ask each student if they would like to make a bracelet or a necklace

2. Measure out a piece of string according to what the student would like to make

3. Have the student pick out the first bead they would like to use. Lace the bead onto the end of the string and tie a knot around the bead.

4. When the student has finished their beading, tie a knot around the last bead used. Make sure there is enough end left to tie the beaded string together.

Activity #3: Headdress

1. Give each student a 20x2 inch strip of construction paper. Tell the student to write their name on one side of the strip.

2. After their names are on the one side, have them flip over to the other side to decorate. Tell the children, “The Iroquois’ were a woodland tribe and they liked to use flower designs and bright colors usually with black or dark blue backgrounds to decorate their headdresses.”

3. Staple the long strip to make a headband to fit the student’s head. Staple the two smaller strips to the headband, making an “x” at the top.

4. Have the children pick out feathers to staple to the strips. Staple one feather to the top making it stick out the top.

5. Glue a ring of cotton balls around the base of the top feather.

6. Set aside to dry. Activity #4: Coloring and Story Creation

1. Show the children the choices of pictures they can color.

2. Give the students a piece of lined paper and tell them to write a paragraph about what is happening in the picture

3. When the students are finished with their paragraph, have them show the teacher for editing purposes.

4. Have the students correct their paragraphs and write a final copy for their picture

5. Have the students color their picture.

6. Staple the paragraph to the picture. Have the students write their names on the bottom of the paragraph or on the back of their papers.

Assessment:

• Colored picture with corresponding paragraphs with editing papers

Editing Checklist

Editing Process Yes No

Paragraph contains 5 or more sentences

All capitalization is correct

Correct punctuation

Any run-on sentences

Spelling Errors

• Completed headdresses

Headdress Grading Criteria

Content Yes No

Did the student follow all directions

Were bright colors used

Did students use a design


• Observations/anecdotal records taken from sharing of wampum belt stories

- did students use any symbols ?

- did students put their clan animal on the wampum belt?

• Observations/anecdotal records taken during beading – did students make a pattern?

Lesson Plan 2

Lesson Plan #2 (Week 3)

Unit Title or Subject Area: Native American Indians – Discovery center

Grade Level: 4th Grade

Instructional Objectives:

• Students will use their sense of touch to help them identify hidden objects.

• Students will learn how to analyze items for what the items were made from.

• Students will understand the uses of given material and importance of the material to the Native American Indian culture

• Students will tell how they feel about a given art piece based on their own opinions and feelings.

• Students will be able to tell the purpose behind specific crafts, such as the dream catcher

• Students will be able to tell why certain materials were used for specific crafts, such as pottery bowls

• Students will be able to tell what specific items are used for, such as arrowheads

Materials:

Food – Mystery Boxes

• Corn

• Beans

• Squash

• 3 shoe boxes with a hole cut out covered with fabric with a cut in it for children to put their hands in and label the boxes 1 – 3

• Mystery box worksheet

Clothing

• Head dress

• Moccasins

• Beaded headband

• Jewelry

• Numbered index cards

• worksheet

Material Things

• Fur

• Arrows

• Arrowhead

• Seed beads

• Numbered index cards

• Worksheet

Art work:

• Pictures of Native American Indian artifacts from various sources, numbered

• Dream catcher

• Medicine wheel

• Pottery

• Numbered index cards

• Legends/story about dream catchers and medicine wheel

• Worksheet

Procedure:

Introduce the interest center to the students. “This center revolves around the material things the Native American Indians used or made. The first center is mystery boxes. You will need to try to guess what the items are and what they are used for. The second center is the clothing center. The third center is called material things and the last center is the picture activity. The pictures were taken at the Iroquois Museum in Cobleskill, NY. Remember only four people at a center at one time. You must do at least two of the centers.”

Activity #1 – Mystery boxes

1. Hand out the worksheets to the students.

2. Have each student put their hand in the boxes, one at a time.

3. Tell the students, “Put your hand in the box and feel the item or items inside. On your worksheet answer the questions related to the item before moving on to the next box.”

4. When they are finished remind them to put their names on the top of the page and hand it in.

5. Discuss what each item was and show the students.

a. What is this item?

b. What do you think this item is used for?

c. Why is this item important to Native American Indian culture?

Activity #2 – Clothing

1. Hand out the worksheets to the students

2. Tell the students, “You are free to explore each of the items. Please remember to respect the items you see. Fill out the worksheet for each item. Remember to put your name on the worksheet. When you are finished, please hand in your worksheet.

3. Walk around the group and help where needed and ask students probing questions about each item.

4. When all the students are finished with the worksheets, discuss each item with them.

a. What is this item?

b. What do you think the purpose of this item is?

c. What types of material do you think was really used to make this?

Activity #3 – Material things

1. Hand out the worksheets to the students

2. Tell the students, “You are free to explore each of the items. Please remember to respect the items you see. Fill out the worksheet for each item. Remember to put your name on the worksheet. When you are finished, please hand in your worksheet.

3. Walk around the group and help where needed and ask students probing questions about each item.

4. When all the students are finished with the worksheets, discuss each item with them.

a. What is this item?

b. What do you think the purpose of this item is?

c. What types of material do you think was really used to make this?

Activity #4 – Art work

1. Hand out the worksheets to the students

2. Tell the students, “You are free to explore each of the items. Please remember to respect the items you see. Fill out the worksheet for each item. Remember to put your name on the worksheet. The pictures in Art #1 are number, please remember to write down the number of the picture you choose to look at. When you are finished, please hand in your worksheet.”

3. Walk around the group and help where needed and ask students probing questions about each item.

4. When all the students are finished with the worksheet, discuss the items with the student.

a. Share the legends behind the dream catcher and medicine wheel.

b. Ask the students what time period they think the art work is from.

“Today we looked at many materials and art pieces from the Native American Indian culture. The Native American Indians used many resources that were available to them at the time and today they still use some of the same materials from nature.”

Assessment:

• Mystery box worksheet

Box 1:

1. Describe what this item feels like.

2. What do you think this item is?

3. What is this item used for?

Box 2:

4. Describe what this item feels like.

5. What do you think this item is?

6. What is this item used for?

Box 3:

7. Describe what this item feels like.

8. What do you think this item is?

9. What is this item used for?

• Clothing and material worksheet

Item # 1:

1. What is this item?

2. What was it used for?

3. What was it made from?

Item # 2:

4. What is this item?

5. What was it used for?

6. What was it made from?

Item # 3:

7. What is this item?

8. What was it used for?

9. What was it made from?

Item # 4:

10. What is this item?

11. What was it used for?

12. What was it made from?

After looking at all the items, what would you like to learn more about?

• Art items worksheet

Art # 1 Pictures:

1. What picture did you look at?

2. What do you think this item is?

3. What do you think this item is made of?

4. How does it make you feel?

Art #2

1. What do you think this item is?

2. What do you think this item is made of?

3. How does it make you feel?

Art #3

1. What do you think this item is?

2. What do you think this item is made of?

3. How does it make you feel?

Art #4

1. What do you think this item is?

2. What do you think this item is made of?

3. How does it make you feel?

After looking at all of the Art Work, what are you interested in learning more about or making?

• Observations and anecdotal records from discussions

- Can the students state the purpose of a dream catcher or medicine wheel?

- Can the students describe the purpose behind certain clothing items?

- Can the students describe the purpose behind some of the art items?

Lesson Plan 3

Lesson Plan #3 (Week 5)

Grade Level: 4th grade

Unit Title or Subject Area: Cheyenne Again

Instructional Objectives:

• Students will refer to details and examples in the book when asked questions about the story.

• Students will be able to describe in depth about Young Bull, drawing on specific details in the text and be able to create an open–minded portrait.

• Students will be able to recognize, interpret and make connections in the story by using a Facts, Questions, Responses chart.

• Students will create interview questions based on the book.

• Students will be able to answer interview questions based on the character in the book.

Materials:

• Book: Cheyenne Again by Eve Bunting

• Loose leaf paper

• Pencils

• Crayons

• Open–minded Portrait Worksheet

Procedures:

Introduce the book Cheyenne Again. “In the late 1800’s, Young Bull is taken away from his Native American Indian tribe and taken to a boarding school to learn the ways of the white man.” As you read the book, have the students write down any facts that they’ve learned, questions they have, or responses on a sticky note. Have the students make a three column chart (labeled Facts, Questions, and Responses) and put the sticky notes into their columns.

During and after the story, ask questions related to what happened in the book and how the students think Young Bull felt about being taken away from his home.

Re-read the book. Have the students reflect on the questions. Were some of them answered in the text? In your head? Is some further research needed?

Go over the directions for the open-minded portrait. Explain to the students what an open-mind portrait is. An open-minded portrait is where you draw and write about the character, from the character’s viewpoint. You need to focus on what the character is thinking and doing during specific points in the story. “In one of the “heads” draw the face of Young Bull. In the other head, write or draw any thoughts the character might have had during the story. Are there any questions?” Give the students plenty of time to finish their portraits

Have the students conduct a character interview. Give the students about five minutes to write at least five interview questions for Young Bull. Collect their papers and hand them to a different student. The students must now answer the questions as if they are the Young Bull. Give them about five minutes to answer the questions. Collect all the papers and ask for volunteer pairs of students to go to the front of the room to act out their interviews for the class. Give the interviewer something to pretend it’s a microphone.

Assessment:

• answers to discussion questions

- How do you think Young Bull feels about having to leave his tribe?

- Why do you think his father wanted Young Bull to learn the “white man’s ways”?

- What do you think Young Bull’s teacher meant when she told him “Never forget you are Indian inside. Don’t let us take your memories?”

• Facts Questions Responses Charts

• Open-mind portraits

Lesson Plan #3 – Open-minded Portrait

Name: ______________________________________________ Directions: In one “head” draw a picture of Young Bull. In the other “head” write or draw thoughts Young Bull may have had at any point in the story. The portraits need to be colored.


• Character Interviews

Resources

Teacher Resourses:

Redish, L. and Lewis, O. (2009). Native Languages of the Americas. Retrieved February 13, 2011, from http://www.nativelanguages.org/kids.htm

Finney, D. Native American Housing. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from http://www.greatdreams.com/native/nativehsg.htm

Native Languages of the Americas website (2011). Native American Housing. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from

http://www.native-languages.org/houses.htm 

Native Languages of the Americas website (2011). Native American Culture. Retrieved March 112, 2011 from http://www.native-languages.org/home.htm

Native Languages of the Americas website (2011). Native American Art. Retrieved March 112, 2011 from http://www.native-languages.org/art.htm

Pepper, C. (2010). Native American Culture. Retrieved March 10, 2010 From http://www.ewebtribe.com/NACulture/clothes.htm

Brasser, T. (2009). Native American Clothing: An Illustrated History. Firefly Books.

Paterek, J. (1996). Encyclopedia of American Indian Costume. W. W. Norton & Company

HungryWolf, A. (2003). Traditional Dress: Knowledge and Methods of Old-Time Clothing. Native Voices.

Read-Aloud,Shared, Independent or Guided Readings:

Bunting, E. (1995). Cheyenne Again. Clarion Books: New York

Clayton, P. (1995). Calling Crow. Berkley Books, New York.

O’Dell, S. (1970). Sing Down The Moon. Random House, Inc. New York.

O’Dell, S. (1960). Island of the Blue Dolphins. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, New York.

Mooney, J. (1992). History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the

Cherokees. Bright Mountain Books, Inc: North Carolina

Hardin, T. (1993). Legends and Lore of the American Indians. Barnes and Noble, Inc: New York

Kalman, B. (2001). Native Homes. Anchorage. Reed Business Information, Inc.

Kalman, B. (2001). Life in a Longhouse Village. Anchorage: Reed Business Information, Inc.

Kalman, B. (2001). Life in a Plains Camp. Anchorage: Reed Business Information, Inc.

Field Trips:

Iroquois Indian Museum, located in Cobleskill, New York http://www.iroquoismuseum.org/

New York State Museum, located in Albany, NY http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/

Seneca-Iroquois National Museum, located in Salamanca, NY http://www.senecamuseum.org/

Museum of the City of New York, located in New York City http://www.mcny.org//

National Museums of the American Indian, located in New York City http://www.nmai.si.edu/