Unit 4: How does translating work, and how can integrate it into language learning instruction?

From KNILT

How does Translating work?


The answer is Decoding and Recoding!

Simply, the translation process can be described in 3 steps, which means 1) Analysis, 2) Transfer, and 3) Restructuring skills are required in order to translate:


How TR works.jpg


The below diagram is an example of translating the source language (Korean) into the target language (English).

How TR works Ex.jpg


[1] Translation Method

This method was used for reading and appreciating foreign language literature under the form of reading passages for grammar rules, vocabulary and translation with the help of the teacher. It was essentially based on the use of L1 (mother tongue) and L2 (target language)


[2] Techniques

Translation: Students will be asked to read a literary passage and then translate the target language into their native language. Deductive application of rules: Students understand the rule then they apply it to examples. Memorization: Students are asked to memorize new words, grammatical rules, and verb conjugation. Fill-in-the-blanks: Teacher gives students sentences with word missing. Students should fill in the blanks with the new vocabulary or with a particular grammar type. Reading comprehension questions: Students are asked in their mother tongue, but the answer will be in the target language. Question (L1)/Answers (L2)


[3] Characteristics

  1. Teacher: Source of knowledge, authority in class. -> In this context students become “passive”
  2. Writing over speaking: Students develop their writing skills but fail to express themselves orally. No importance given to pronunciation. -> Lack of communication



How to integrate translation in language learning?

Let's find out the basic and essential types of Assessment Items.


N1.jpg Exercise One - Vocabulary Translation


Level: A2 (Pre-Intermediate) - B1 (Intermediate)

Direction:


  • thefts
  • manufacturers
  • resolve
  • witnessed a record
  • nearly half of all thefts
  • underlying issue
  • slow to tackle the problem

Companies slow to tackle U.S. mobile phone (thefts)
휴대폰 (절도) 범죄 증가, 손 놓고 있는 기업들

U.S. authorities said mobile carriers and phone (manufacturers) should do more to (resolve) the rapidly growing smartphone thefts.
미국 내 스마트폰 절도 범죄가 증가하고 있지만 이에 대한 통신사와 (제조사들)의 (대응)은 부실한 것으로 알려져 논란이 되고 있다.

In 2012, Washington D.C. alone (witnessed a record) 1,829 smartphone robberies and (nearly half of all thefts) in San Francisco involved mobile devices, according to the U.S. police.
지난해 워싱턴 DC에서만 1,829건의 핸드폰 절도 (사건이 발생했고), 샌프란시스코에서는 핸드폰 절도가 (전체 절도 범죄 건수의 반)을 차지했다.

The (underlying issue) is that wireless carriers and smartphone producers are (slow to tackle the problem).
그러나 (더 큰 문제)는 이동통신사와 스마트폰 제조사들은 사실상 이에 대해 (손을 놓고 있다는 사실이다).


N2.jpg Exercise Two - Grammar Translation

Case one: Fill-in-the-blank method

Level: A1 (Elementary)- A2 (Pre-Intermediate)

Direction: Refer to the translation, please fill in the blank.

  • English: Jane is _____ playing on the computer.
  • Korean: 제인은 계속해서 컴퓨터를 하고 있다.


Case two: Reading comprehension method


Direction: Translate the English sentences into Korean (L1).

1. I rarely get up late on weekends.

__________________________

2. I am sometimes late for class.

__________________________

3. I hardly ever go running on Sunday mornings.

_______________________________________

4. I often take a bath in the morning.

__________________________



N3.jpg Exercise Three - Sentence Translation

Level: B2 (Upper-Intermediate) - C1 (Advanced)

STEP 1- Practice L1
Direction: Write one-day diary or choose one from your diary in your first language (L1).
It should be included at least five tenses from the below:
simple present, simple future, present continuous, continuous future, past continuous,present perfect simple,
present perfect future, present perfect continuous, past perfect simple, past perfect continuous, or the future

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________


STEP 2 - Practice L2 Direction: Translate your diary into English (L2).

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Note:


STEP 3 – Peer Assessment: Have your peer assessment in the section of STEP 2.

STEP 4 – Teacher Assessment: Have your teacher assessment in the section of STEP 2.

STEP 5 - Practice Revising/Edit Direction: Refer to the comments and feedback from Step 3 and 4, revise/edit your diary.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________




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