Unit 4: How does translating work, and how can integrate it into language learning instruction?
How does Translating work?
The answer is Decoding and Recoding!
Simply, the translation process can be described in 3 steps, which means 1) Analysis, 2) Transfer, and 3) Restructuring skills are required in order to translate:
The below diagram is an example of translating the source language (Korean) into the target language (English).
 Translation Method
This method was used for reading and appreciating foreign language literature under the form of reading passages for grammar rules, vocabulary and translation with the help of the teacher. It was essentially based on the use of L1 (mother tongue) and L2 (target language)
Translation: Students will be asked to read a literary passage and then translate the target language into their native language. Deductive application of rules: Students understand the rule then they apply it to examples. Memorization: Students are asked to memorize new words, grammatical rules, and verb conjugation. Fill-in-the-blanks: Teacher gives students sentences with word missing. Students should fill in the blanks with the new vocabulary or with a particular grammar type. Reading comprehension questions: Students are asked in their mother tongue, but the answer will be in the target language. Question (L1)/Answers (L2)
- Teacher: Source of knowledge, authority in class. -> In this context students become “passive”
- Writing over speaking: Students develop their writing skills but fail to express themselves orally. No importance given to pronunciation. -> Lack of communication
How to integrate translation in language learning?
Let's find out the basic and essential types of Assessment Items.
♦ In terms of vocabulary learning, memorizing the words does not work all the time. After the vocabulary lesson, you might use the completing sentences method which is also provided with the L1 so that the students can apply the vocabulary into reading context.
Level: A2 (Pre-Intermediate) - B1 (Intermediate)
- theft (n): the act of stealing, an unlawful taking of property
- manufacturer (n): an employer of workers in manufacturing
- resolve (v): to deal with successfully, clear up
- witness (v) : to furnish proof of, to testify
- nearly (ad):almost but not quite
- underlying (aj): basic, fundamental
- tackle (v): to set about dealing with
Direction: Complete the below sentences using the vocabularies.
|Extract from a Newspaper|
|Companies slow to tackle U.S. mobile phone (_____)|
휴대폰 (절도) 범죄 증가, 손 놓고 있는 기업들
U.S. authorities said mobile carriers and phone (_____) should do more to (_____) the rapidly growing smartphone thefts.
In 2012, Washington D.C. alone (_____) a record 1,829 smartphone robberies and (_____) half of all thefts in San Francisco involved mobile devices, according to the U.S. police.
The (_____) issue is that wireless carriers and smartphone producers are slow to (_____) the problem.
♦ In this exercise, students can learn the grammar and the L1 translation skill.
Level: A1 (Elementary)- A2 (Pre-Intermediate)
Case one: Fill-in-the-blank method
Direction: Translate the English sentences (L2) into Korean (L1) and discuss each translation with your group.
1): * English: Rachel suddenly stops drinking.
* Korean: ______________________.
2): * English: Rachel suddenly stops to drink.
* Korean: ______________________.
Case two: Reading comprehension method
Direction: Translate the English sentences into Korean (L1).
1. I rarely get up late on weekends.
2. I am sometimes late for class.
3. I hardly ever go running on Sunday mornings.
4. I often take a bath in the morning.
Level: B2 (Upper-Intermediate) - C1 (Advanced)
STEP 1 - Practice L1
Direction: Write one-day diary or choose one from your diary in your first language (L1).
It should be included at least five tenses from the below:
simple present, simple future, present continuous, continuous future, past continuous,present perfect simple,
present perfect future, present perfect continuous, past perfect simple, past perfect continuous, or the future
STEP 2 - Practice L2 Direction: Translate your diary into English (L2).
STEP 3 – Peer Assessment: Have your peer assessment in the section of STEP 2.
STEP 4 – Teacher Assessment: Have your teacher assessment in the section of STEP 2.
STEP 5 - Practice Revising/Edit
Direction: Refer to the comments and feedback from Step 3 and 4, revise/edit your diary.