Return to: ETAP 623 Spring 2015 taught by Zhang |
My name is Dana Gaska. I am currently employed by OHM BOCES where I have been a Mandarin Chinese teacher for six years. I learned how to speak Chinese while studying for my undergraduate degree at UAlbany. I teach Chinese via distance learning using synchronous video. This year I am teaching about 100 students from 7 different school districts. This type of teaching has taught me to be extremely flexible in my teaching plans as not only do the inevitable technological hiccups occur, I also deal with simultaneous classes with two bell schedules, different snow days, field trips, and all the other minor scheduling issues that suddenly become a problem when involving multiple schools. While it poses its challenges, I do find this type of teaching to be rewarding and fun.
To Mini-Course: Designing Lessons with Target-Language use in Mind
My topic is target language instruction in the foreign language classroom. The purpose of this course is to give language educators the tools needed to have engaging language classes conducted in the target language.
1. The benefits of high target language usage
2. Strategies for staying in the target language
3. Providing Comprehensible input to FL students
Participants will be able to:
1. Identify strategies for target language use in the classroom
2. Discus ways to provide students with comprehensible input
3. Design a short lesson conducted in the target language
The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) has recommended that teachers of foreign language use the target language for at least 90% of instruction. According to research (LeLoup, J. W., Ponterio, R., & Warford, M. K., 2013) however, many educators struggle to reach this level of target language use in the classroom. There are a myriad of reasons for the gap in expectations and reality. Most teachers are aware of ACTFL’s recommendations and the research that points to the use of target language being important, but they are hindered by misconceptions and lack of specific training in the topic.
In order to determine what teachers already knew about teaching in the target language, I surveyed 5 teachers of foreign language. Questions looked to determine the teacher’s attitudes towards target language use in the classroom, their view on the importance of using the target language, strategies that they were employing in their classrooms, and obstacles towards using the target language 90% of the time.
Results of the Survey
From looking at the results of the survey, I concluded that all of the teachers were aware of the importance of using a high level of the target language in the foreign language classroom. All of the teachers fell short of their own personal goals, many of which were lower than the 90% recommended by ACTFL. Many of the teachers had misconceptions about using the target language, including that you need to use more English at the lower levels, or you should translate what you say into English after saying it in the target language. They all had some strategies that they employed indicating that they did think about the topic. However each teacher listed several obstacles as to why they could not complete their goals.
Analysis of the Learner and Context
This course is for language educators seeking guidance in increasing target language use in their language classes. It is primarily created for teachers using a synchronous distance learning setup to teach, but it will also be useful for traditional language teachers in a brick and mortar education setting.
Context All instruction for this course will be conducted online. Learners will need a computer with access to the internet. For some activities a microphone will be useful for teachers to record their voice in order to listen to the playback.
At the end of this course students will be able to:
- Identify several misconceptions to target language use in the classroom
- Identify several strategies teachers can use to increase target language use
- Evaluate a lesson for use of the target language
- Troubleshoot issues related to target language use in the classroom
- Design a short activity with emphasis on target language use
Assumptions and misconceptions-laying the groundwork
1. The learner will take a quiz to identify their beliefs about target-language use.
2. The learner will understand common misconceptions about in class target-language use.
3. The learner will decide on a theme and skill for a lesson they will create.
Strategies for target language use-Building your walls
1. The learner will identify strategies to keep students and the teacher using the target-language.
2. The learner will watch a video to identify the strategies used by another teacher.
3. The learner will identify several key strategies that they will use in their lesson.
Comprehensible Input in the Foreign Language Classroom
1. The learner will evaluate a lesson for use of TL in providing comprehensible input.
2. The learner will reflect on current classroom practice.
3. The learner will identify ways to improve CI use in the classroom.
References and Resources
1. Crous, D. (2012. October) Going for 90% Plus: Keeping it in the Target Language. The Language Educator, 22-27. Retrieved from: https://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/TLE_pdf/TLE_Oct12_Article.pdf
2. Donato, R., & Smith, M. [Word Document] STARTALK Comprehensible Input Checklist. Retrieved from http://startalkcooperatingteachers.wikispaces.com/Instructional+Strategies.
3. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.http://www.sdkrashen.com/content/books/principles_and_practice.pdf
4. LeLoup, J. W., Ponterio, R., & Warford, M. K. (2013). Overcoming resistance to 90% target language use: Rationale, challenges, and suggestions. NECTFL Review, (72), 45-60.
5. Moeller, A., Roberts, A. (2013) Keeping it in the Target Language. MultiTasks, MultiSkills, MultiConnections. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Education. Paper 178. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/teachlearnfacpub/178.
6. Strategies to Make Content Comprehensible: Retrieved from languageeducation.pbworks.com
7. Thompson, G., Harrison, K. (2014). Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 47(3), 321-337.
8. Wong-Fillmore, L. (1985). Second language learning in children: A propose model. In R. Eshch & J. Provinzano (Eds.) Issues in English development. Rosslyn, VA National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.