CLCS Unit Lesson 3

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CLCS Unit Lesson 3

UNIT OBJECTIVE: Educators & students will be able to locate, evaluate, gather, organize, transcribe, and set up additional resource reference lists

Shared Resources

Why do we reference everything, anyways?

Copyrights were developed to protect the creative investment of the artists. After the invention of the printing press, folks became attached to the efforts they put forth in the generation of written articles. Slowly, over the years, protections were built up, more or less culminating in the Berne Convention* of 1896, which forms the international basis of current practices today (international reciprocity).

More than a hundred years, you ask?

With the recent onslaught of software technology, the Internet, code copyrights, patents to genetically engineered materials, etc., how can such an antiquated system keep up with it all? Einstein was no fool, working in a Swiss patent office, while pursuing his own research that produced E=mc2. Perhaps, his reviews of other (then) recent patent applications inspired his work’s direction, as well as ensuring that the intellectual information he presented was fully attributed to his own efforts (a rarity & challenge in science). The short answer is that copyright and intellectual property protection is a hot field for lawyers, clerks, inventors, software code writers, biomedical engineers, and many more. Back logs, wait times, approval reviews, and actual product registrations culminate in an extreme effort that “the little guy” inventors are hard put to keep up with, against the corporate task forces designed to squeeze the most profit out of their works.

Are we running out of things to invent?

The exponentially increasing use of the Internet does not seem to indicate that dearth as yet. Implicit on postings on the Internet is that the material is created, maintained, and owned by whoever posts it. That was how the laws went up until the Berne Convention as well- only at a national level. Items protected within the UK were fair game in France, and vice versa. So the Berne convention essentially made international protection more the norm, but the US held back from signing until 1988, using a series of other agreements until they arrived at one that satisfied their needs. Here’s hoping it doesn’t take the US another century to work up another international agreement, with everyone’s best interest in mind.


So we reference works, or cite them in text, to attribute their creators the honor of having put forth the effort to produce them. Many researchers then “chunk” up the information credited to an author or set of authors to the names, so that referencing a single name brings up a whole set of ideas that they are involved with publishing. Often, this helps to organize our thinking processes, by giving complex ideas a label (malleable as that label may be). Most important, according to the US standards, is that we should not “steal” material, and gain a profit from it. The ease of copying complex multimedia content such as DVDs, CDs, etc., has led to the resurgence of the term “piracy” (prior to the Somali’s more traditional marine use of the theft act). Educators are privileged to be able to use many copyrighted items under the Fair Use Act (last revised 2006). Their students, in turn are also allowed to use items for educational purposes, as long as they are properly cited.

The following references were used to prepare this copyright/intellectual property introductory material.

History of Copyright Law

Intellectual Property

Copyright Bay

Teaching Copyright & Computer Ethics in Teacher Education

Copyright in an Electronic Environment


Add any useful resources you locate in your virtual travels here for other collaborators to use. List any other additional resources under the resource link below, and describe in text what additional material you think they add to the resources.

All of the resources used in this case study are found in the large link below. You may wish to follow links from them, or locate new sources of your own. An example link is provided. To ensure readability of the page, try to match the link format & brief description of what readers will find at the end of the link.

Additional Resources for Food Allergies

(Example) wikipedia nightshades

Wikipedia describes nightshades as their congregate order Solanaceae. In addition to their value as foodstuffs, their potent properties as pharmacological agents are listed, historically and for current uses as well.

<Add your citations here>

CLCS Resources


CLCS Lesson Units Introduction

CLCS Unit Lesson 1 Vocabulary

CLCS Unit Lesson 2 Space for Discussion Task

CLCS Unit Lesson 3 Resource sharing

CLCS Unit Lesson 4 Metacognitive strategies

CLCS Unit Lesson 5 Assessment Tools

CLCS Glossary

ETAP 623 Spring 2009 Learning Commmunity

Elizabeth Kinney EK Main Page

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