Unit 4: How does translating work, and how can integrate it into language learning instruction?

Unit Objectives: Educators will learn how does translating work including its method, techniques and characteristics; moreover, what types of assessment items can be used to measure the learning outcomes.

How does Translating work?


The answer is Decoding and Recoding!

Simply, the translation process can be described in 3 steps, which means 1) Analysis, 2) Transfer, and 3) Restructuring skills are required in order to translate:


How TR works.jpg


The below diagram is an example of translating the source language (Korean) into the target language (English).

How TR works Ex.jpg


[1] Translation Method

This method was used for reading and appreciating foreign language literature under the form of reading passages for grammar rules, vocabulary and translation with the help of the teacher. It was essentially based on the use of L1 (mother tongue) and L2 (target language)


[2] Techniques

Translation: Students will be asked to read a literary passage and then translate the target language into their native language.

Deductive application of rules: Students understand the rule then they apply it to examples.

Memorization: Students are asked to memorize new words, grammatical rules, and verb conjugation.

Fill-in-the-blanks: Teacher gives students sentences with word missing. Students should fill in the blanks with the new vocabulary or with a particular grammar type.

Reading comprehension questions: Students are asked in their mother tongue, but the answer will be in the target language. Question (L1)/Answers (L2)


[3] Characteristics

  1. Teacher: Source of knowledge, authority in class. -> In this context students become “passive”
  2. Writing over speaking: Students develop their writing skills but fail to express themselves orally. No importance given to pronunciation. -> Lack of communication



How to integrate translation in language learning?

Let's find out the basic and essential types of Assessment Items.


N1.jpg Exercise One - Vocabulary Translation


♦ In terms of vocabulary learning, memorizing the words does not work all the time. After the vocabulary lesson, you might use the completing sentences method which is also provided with the L1 so that the students can apply the vocabulary into reading context.

Level: A2 (Pre-Intermediate) - B1 (Intermediate)

  • theft (n): the act of stealing, an unlawful taking of property
  • manufacturer (n): an employer of workers in manufacturing
  • resolve (v): to deal with successfully, clear up
  • witness (v) : to furnish proof of, to testify
  • nearly (ad):almost but not quite
  • underlying (aj): basic, fundamental
  • tackle (v): to set about dealing with


Direction: Complete the below sentences using the vocabularies.

Extract from a Newspaper
Companies slow to tackle U.S. mobile phone (_____)

휴대폰 (절도) 범죄 증가, 손 놓고 있는 기업들

U.S. authorities said mobile carriers and phone (_____) should do more to (_____) the rapidly growing smartphone thefts.
미국 내 스마트폰 절도 범죄가 증가하고 있지만 이에 대한 통신사와 (제조사)들의 (대응)은 부실한 것으로 알려져 논란이 되고 있다.

In 2012, Washington D.C. alone (_____) a record 1,829 smartphone robberies and (_____) half of all thefts in San Francisco involved mobile devices, according to the U.S. police.
지난해 워싱턴 DC에서만 1,829건의 핸드폰 절도 사건이 (발생했고), 샌프란시스코에서는 핸드폰 절도가 전체 절도 범죄 건수의 (거의) 반을 차지했다.

The (_____) issue is that wireless carriers and smartphone producers are slow to (_____) the problem.
그러나 (더 큰 중요한) 문제는 이동통신사와 스마트폰 제조사들은 이에 대해 문제를 신속히 (해결하지) 않고 있다는 사실이다).


N2.jpg Exercise Two - Grammar Translation


♦ In this exercise, students can learn the grammar and the L1 translation skill.

Level: A1 (Elementary)- A2 (Pre-Intermediate)
Case one: Fill-in-the-blank method

Direction: Translate the English sentences (L2) into Korean (L1) and discuss each translation with your group.


1) English: Rachel suddenly stops drinking.

Korean: ______________________.

2) English: Rachel suddenly stops to drink.

Korean: ______________________.


Case two: Reading comprehension method

Direction: Translate the English sentences into Korean (L1).

1. I rarely get up late on weekends.

__________________________

2. I am sometimes late for class.

__________________________

3. I hardly ever go running on Sunday mornings.

_______________________________________

4. I often take a bath in the morning.

__________________________



N3.jpg Exercise Three - Sentence Translation


Level: B2 (Upper-Intermediate) - C1 (Advanced)

STEP 1 - Practice L1
Direction: Write one-day diary or choose one from your diary in your first language (L1).
It should be included at least five tenses from the below:
simple present, simple future, present continuous, continuous future, past continuous,present perfect simple,
present perfect future, present perfect continuous, past perfect simple, past perfect continuous, or the future

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________


STEP 2 - Practice L2 Direction: Translate your diary into English (L2).

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Note:


STEP 3 – Peer Assessment: Have your peer assessment in the section of STEP 2.

STEP 4 – Teacher Assessment: Have your teacher assessment in the section of STEP 2.

STEP 5 - Practice Revising/Edit

Direction: Refer to the comments and feedback from Step 3 and 4, revise/edit your diary.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________




Blue 1.jpg Tips for Teachers!
In terms of a translation assignment, constructive feedbacks or comments plays a crucial role in improving students' studies.

Here is the "Tips for Commenting on Student Writing".
You may find valuable information from the web page:[[1]]


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