Module 4 Lesson Plans

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Learning Objectives for Lesson Plans

Ensure ethics and quality of the lesson Demonstrate how to conduct a debate Explain what kind of assessment of a lesson plan is need to close the gap Demonstrate how to form student project-based learning

Mini Lecture Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan designs and course development require hours of planning. Once these tasks are completed, you and your student will always know where you are. It is like the target is drive from NY to LA and the objective is to stop and see some historical places and visit friends and family along the way which will determine gas, hotels, and time. Now we would consider the experience itself, context of being in the car, eating outside or in restaurants and sleeping different places. For these considerations there must be adjustment to rectify the ultimate target and the route and the experience of making it happen.

With a well thought out lesson planned, you will know what you didn't complete and exactly where to continue. Just remember to present the learning objectives at start, before you start the lesson, and then review each objective when finished with the lesson. Give the students feedback and ask the students to give you feedback on what they need you to do better. If you start designing the lesson plan remember this process and it will help you close the gaps because you keep you eyes on the teaching goal to empower the student to take control of their learning.

In today's world we have many ways to access books,journals, and communication methods, but if we get to enchanted with all the complimentary stuff we might loose the course? It is like getting distracted when you are driving. Today’s world is media. Often we use too much of it. Students will need challenging assignments and the classes need to stimulate real learning. This is the only way to control a class on or off line. Think of the Lesson plan as a map getting you to where you want to go. You can put as much or as little onto a lesson plan form. The important thing is to understand the logical structure for a logical presentation with creative class activities that help ALL the students take control of the learning through every level of learning.

Teaching is a creative adventure. We are challenged to respect the needs of everyone in the class. The more time you take to carefully plan activities, the better your course will be. You become a fantastic teacher by making an effort to learn how to teach. Develop your own ideas and plan the lessons carefully. Be sure to keep track of time and distractions so that topics are adequately covered, and class learning goals are achieved.

The trick is knowing the environment they are learning in and you are teaching in. Check the criteria of each learning objective for each goal. Ask what tasks are needed to complete the objectives. Set up the files of information and skills for each lesson. Decide on the context of the lesson like discussion, writing assignments, or research projects. Produce checklists, flow of info charts, concept maps, scheme of action plans, records, budget and more.

'Class activity, teach activity, learning strategy'

Steps for Preparing a Lesson Plan

Below are the six basic steps to creating your first lesson plans. Each step is accompanied by a set of questions helping you to formulate the design of your teaching strategies and learning activities.

(1) Outline learning objectives

The first step is to determine what you want students to learn and be able to do at the end of class. In Module Three we looked at the component of learning objectives. Here is another way of formulating the learning objectives as you see them in the context of the lesson plan when you are figuring out what the student will be doing so they learn the material. Try to specify your objectives for student learning, by answering the following questions:

  • What is the topic of the lesson?
  • What do I want students to learn?
  • What do I want them to understand and be able to do at the end of class?
* What do I want them to take away from this particular lesson?

Once you answer the questions, create the learning objectives: “By the end of this Lesson/Module, the student will be able to….”. Be sure to rank the learning objectives in order of their importance. This will help you manage class time and you will be able to cover the most important material in case you are pressed for time.

Consider the following questions

What are the most important concepts, ideas, or skills that the student must master?
If I ran out of time, which one of the learning objectives cannot be omitted?
And conversely, which learning objectives could I skip if pressed for time?

(2) Develop the introduction

Develop a creative introduction to the topic to stimulate interest and encourage thinking. You can use a variety of approaches to engage students. Try a personal anecdote, historical event, thought-provoking dilemma, real-world example, short video clip, practical application, or a probing question.

Consider the following questions when planning your introduction:

  • What strategy can I use to introduce the topic?
  • How will I check whether students know anything about the topic?
  • How can I check whether the student have any preconceived ideas about the subject?
  • What are some common ideas about this topic that students might be familiar with?
  • What are common misconceptions about this topic that students might be familiar with?

(3) Plan the main body of the lesson

Prepare several different ways of explaining the material to catch the attention of more students and appeal to different learning styles. As you plan your examples and activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each. Build in time for extended explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems, and to identify strategies that check for understanding. These questions would help you design the learning activities you will use:
  • What will I do to explain the topic?
  • What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way?
  • How can I engage students in the topic?
  • What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students understand the topic?
  • What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?

(4) Plan to check for understanding

Now that you have explained the topic and illustrated it with different examples, you need to check for student understanding – how will you know that students are learning? Think about specific questions you can ask students in order to check for understanding, write them down, and then paraphrase them so that you are prepared to ask the questions in different ways. Try to predict the answers your questions will generate. Decide on whether you want students to respond orally or in writing.
An important strategy that will also help you with time management is to anticipate students’ questions. When planning your lesson, decide what kinds of questions will be productive for discussion and what questions might sidetrack the class. Think about and decide on the balance between covering content (accomplishing your learning objectives) and ensuring that students understand.
  • What questions will I ask students to check for understanding?
  • What will I have students do to demonstrate that they are following?
  • Going back to my list of learning objectives, what activity can I have students do to check whether each of those has been accomplished?

(5) Develop a conclusion and a preview

Go over the material covered in class by summarizing the main points of the lesson. You can do this in a number of ways: you can state the main points yourself (“Today we talked about…”), you can ask a student to help you summarize them, or you can even ask all students to write down on a piece of paper what they think were the main points of the lesson. You can review the students’ answers to gauge their understanding of the topic and then explain anything unclear the following class. Conclude the lesson not only by summarizing the main points, but also by previewing the next lesson. How does the topic relate to the one that’s coming? This preview will spur students’ interest and help them connect the different ideas within a larger context.

(6) Create a realistic timeline

A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn. Instructors also agree that they often need to adjust their lesson plan during class depending on what the students need. Your list of prioritized learning objectives will help you make decisions on the spot and adjust your lesson plan as needed. Having additional examples or alternative activities will also allow you to be flexible. A realistic timeline will reflect your flexibility and readiness to adapt to the specific classroom environment. Here are some strategies for creating a realistic timeline:
  • Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each
  • When you prepare your lesson plan, next to each activity indicate how much time you expect it will take
  • Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key points
  • Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left
  • Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students’ needs and focus on what seems to be more productive rather than sticking to your original plan

Presenting the Lesson Plan

Letting your students know what they will be learning and doing in class will help keep them more engaged and on track. You can share your lesson plan by writing a brief agenda on the board or telling students explicitly what they will be learning and doing in class. You can outline on the board or on a handout the learning objectives for the class. Providing a meaningful organization of the class time can help students not only remember better, but also follow your presentation and understand the rationale behind in-class activities. Having a clearly visible agenda (e.g., on the board) will also help you and students stay on track.

Reflecting on Your Lesson Plan

A lesson plan may not work as well as you had expected due to a number of extraneous circumstances. You should not get discouraged – it happens to even the most experienced teachers! Take a few minutes after each class to reflect on what worked well and why, and what you could have done differently. Identifying successful and less successful organization of class time and activities would make it easier to adjust to the contingencies of the classroom. For additional feedback on planning and managing class time, you can use the following resources: student feedback, peer observation, viewing a videotape of your teaching.


Conclusion

To be effective, the lesson plan does not have to be an exhaustive document that describes each and every possible classroom scenario. Nor does it have to anticipate each and every student’s response or question. Instead, it should provide you with a general outline of your teaching goals, learning objectives, and means to accomplish them. It is a reminder of what you want to do and how you want to do it. A productive lesson is not one in which everything goes exactly as planned, but one in which both students and instructor learn from each other.

Here is an example of the list of considerations of Lesson Plans

Matching lesson plan formats to the skills and knowledge that are being taught is an important component of good teaching. Lesson plans must include teaching strategies and reasonable learning goals for the students.

General framework which should be true for just about any lesson plan:

  • Unit title

Lesson 1 of Unit 7 Lesson Name: Components of Lifestyle Topic of Study: Development of Personal Character & Expression

  • Required Amount of Time:

Here we could enter the number of hours, but also the amount of time for a larger topic like on that needs three time two hours, taught over two month period.

  • Instructional goals
  • Learning Objectives for the Lesson

At the end of this Lesson, the student will be able to:

Knowledge - Memory - Demonstrate - in the student's own words
Application - select and use information and materials to complete a problem or demonstrate
Analysis - distinguish - classify - relate evidence - structure a statement - formulate a question
Evaluation - critique the concept on a basis of specific criteria
Synthesis - combine ideas into a product, plan, or proposal
Comprehension - synthesize - evaluate and translate information based on prior learning and combine with new learning
  • Rationale / Teaching Objectives

Here, the trainer describes what teaching strategies are considered to teach for the learning goals. There is a lot to learn about this, but for now, realize that it is very important that a trainer can justify his/her reason for the type of presentation planned for the day. What the subject components are and how the class activities will enhance the learning. This is also a good place to remember to tell the student how to study this section.

For example: Today we will student homeopathic remedies used for First Aid. I will present a short lecture on each remedy and then you will take turns doing a role play. By the end of the class, we will have covered the most common remedies used for burns, cuts, bone injuries, and muscle injuries. Each remedy study will include a variation of psychological, behavioral and physical symptoms for each situation.

  • Content

Instructional procedures

Here we describe the sequence of the teaching. Generally the lesson starts with something to get the students' attention like giving a handout showing of a full length case. Then there is the Body of Lesson, Questioning, and Integration of what new knowledge and performance skills. Then describe the Practical Activities the students will do for active learning. For example: Divide the students into small groups to discuss.

  • Evaluation procedures
  • Materials
  • Focusing event
  • Teaching procedures (methods you will use)

Questions, Discussion, Lecture, Role Plays, Group work

  • Formative check (progress checks throughout the lesson)

Stop and have the class recall what was covered so far.

  • Student Participation (how you will get the students to participate)
  • Closure (how you will end the lesson)
  • Include some other important considerations:
    • Accommodations for Individual Student Needs
    • Management Techniques


Strategies

  • Puzzling situation
  • Data gathering/experimentation by students
  • Hypothesizing and explaining
  • Analyzing the inquiry process
  • Direct Instruction--teacher directed
  • Guided Discovery--student discovery
  • Inquiry--series of divergent questions generate the learning
  • Group Process--cooperative groups, Think-Pair Square, Jigsaw, etc.
  • Project--research, presentation, etc. that is done over a long period of time


Readings

Videos

A concise guide to writing learning objectives that also includes examples from courses at
MIT: http://tll.mit.edu/help/teaching-materials-0
Video clips of GSIs at the University of Michigan actively engaging students in a practice teaching session: http://crlte.engin.umich.edu/practiceteaching/
Video clips of GSIs at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrating the different parts of a lesson: http://gsi.berkeley.edu/teachingguide2009/instructional-technology/videoGallery.html

Discussion Questions

How can you be sure that the goals and the learning objectives are adequately addressed in the lesson plan?

Journal Questions

How do you learn best?

References

Fink, D. L. (2005). Integrated course design. Manhattan, KS: The IDEA Center. Retrieved from http://www.theideacenter.org/sites/default/files/Idea_Paper_42.pdf