A Review of Health Education in NYS and Beyond

                      Review of K-12 School Health Education in New York State & Beyond

Challenges confronting School Health Educators, Learning & Teaching Strategies, and the Professional Support that HELO can offer


* Professional development and support * Pedagogical challenges * Lack of research resources to support health instructional methods * School district and community support systems * Adaptation and integration of technology in the classroom * Community/social networking connections and engagement * Policy environment * Strategies & Directions

1. Professional Development & Support

    A key  issue for school health education is that the US Department of Education has not listed health and physical education as school subjects Lohrmann, 2011, p260). In 2012, the CDC will update its School Health and Policy Programs Study. This study will randomly collect data at all levels of the school system; district, school, and classroom, to determine which health topics are being taught and how they are taught. In New York State, there are specific learning standards established by the NYS Education Department. The Guidance Document is an organized document of school health education for teachers.                                                                                                                                                           
    “21st century students are unlike any students the educational system has ever experienced. These students are often referred to as “Digital Natives or the “Net Generation.” Technology has produced and shaped entirely different students’ learning, thinking, and experiencing the world around them (Hicks, 2011, p188).  In today’s classroom, students and teachers need to be prepared for technology integration into the classroom. However, Hicks (2011) pointed out that many teachers are resistant to using technology to teach students. The most common reason for this is that they may come across as less skilled in front of their “tech-savvy” students (188-189). Another important reason is that teachers lack professional development preparation of technology skills. Properly trained teachers in technology who receive “adequate technical support” are more likely to integrate it into their classroom (p189). 

Lack of a health education professional community in which health educators support themselves and share their voice; (Lohrmann, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011; Steele, 2011).

Health educators also want to realize that they are not alone and they should not just think of working on their own. They have to learn to collaborate and share. (Lohrmann, 2011).

“The [health education] profession needs to be of one voice and advocate as one for K-12 health education.” (McCaughtry, 2011, p348) “…school health education (and health education in general) must find ways of providing an integrated view of health and health behavior and unifying principles and purposes.” (Hochbaum, 2010, p131).

“Collaboration with parents, teachers and staff in the school, and other related professionals in the community is another way to emphasize fitness for students. If the United States is to improve in the health and fitness levels for individual and public health perspectives, it is important for all the related specialists to work together.” (Steele, 2011, p74).

Updated, high, multi-dimensional expectations of health literacy and education; (Fetro, 2010; Lohrmann, 2011; McDermott, 2011) “To help children and youth become health literate through participation in cutting-edge, high-quality, fulfilling and rewarding health education provided in ways that are consistent with how they play, learn and work.” (Lohrmann, 2011, p268).

“Future health education professionals need to be well prepared and actively practice dynamic leadership in articulating what they are teaching and why they are teaching it.” (McDermott, 2011,p343).

    Promoting health literacy is as important as the health information. It is  “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". The ability to understand instructions on prescription drug bottles, appointment slips, medical education brochures, doctor's directions and consent forms, and the ability to negotiate complex health care systems. Educating students to read, listen, analyze, use decision-making skills, and to apply these skills to health situations is vital to the health education process. (http://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/hlthlit.html) 
    Poor health literacy is strongly and significantly correlated to limited general literacy skills” (Borzekowski, 2009, p284). “Low health literacy is also correlated with poor health, lesser ability to care for self and others, and an increased use of health services” (Fetro, 2010, p.259).  Working with children at an early age is the key to developing health literate youth. Children and adolescents would benefit in developing health literacy skills” (Borzekowski, 2009, p284).  Fetro (2010) addressed the complex issue of the types of skills necessary to become health literate. These skills include: health promotion, health protection, and disease prevention; the ability to understand, interpret, and analyze; being able to apply health information to various life situations; navigating health care systems; active participation with healthcare workers; and advocate for your healthcare rights (p259).                                                                                       

Limited teaching time, and competition with other school subjects; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011; Lohrmann, 2011; Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010).

“Whereas the hours devoted to each health topics are reported per year, the typical elementary school includes two hours of language arts, one hour of math, one-half hour of social studies and one-half hour of science instruction every day.” (Lohrmann, 2011, p260-261).

“At the elementary level, most states (70.6%) reported they have adopted goals, objectives or expected outcomes for school health education, but only 19.6% had enacted specific time requirements for health instruction. Without such a mandate, the elementary curriculum may be narrowed to align with subjects that are included in high stakes testing. ” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p155-156).

2. Pedagogical Challenges

    K-12 School Heath Education incorporates health information and health literacy. As  a social science, health education  is based on scientific information from biology, environmental science, psychology, physical, and medicine; health promotion and disease prevention; “development of individual, group, community, institutional, and systemic strategies to improve knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behavior; ”and to promote and facilitate healthy behaviors.(http://www.cnheo.org/PDF%20files/health_ed.pdf).  

Elementary school, middle and high school health teachers’ lack of professional preparation in health education;(Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011; McCaughtry, 2011; Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010).

“Elementary classroom teachers must overcome a number of instructional barriers, including time constraints and professional preparation, if they are to deliver effective health education and enhance health literacy among youth.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p155).

“Only 13% of elementary teachers and 37% of middle and high school teachers had any professional preparation in health education.”(Fetro, 2010, p261). Efforts need to be made on expanding professional preparation in health education, to “ensure that those individuals teaching health education majors are up-to-date with ‘best practice’ and are knowledgeable about resources at the national level.” (p263).

“Nearly no universities give any pedagogical training to elementary teachers about the delivery of health education.” (McDermott, 2011, p339).

“[Health] teachers often have little if any pre-service training in teaching nutrition, lack updated resources and are given woefully little professional development to update their nutrition education skills.” (McCaughtry, 2011, p283).

    The Health Belief Model originated in the 1950s to help predict public attitudes and actions around health issues. In 1966, Irwin Rosenstock, a prominent researcher, further “developed this model to focus efforts to improve public health by understanding why people failed to adopt a preventable health measure (Carpenter, 2010, p661).  

“Inadequate pre-service coursework and in-service training opportunities in health education are additional barriers that contribute to the lack of implementation of health instruction in the elementary classroom.” Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p156). Weak specialized preparation of teachers with a combined major in health and physical education; (McDermott, 2011; McCaughtry, 2011; Deal & Hodges).

“University and college teacher preparation programs have been criticized for the apparent disconnect between coursework an practical applications.” (Deal & Hodges, p3).

Ineffective teaching methodology; (Lohrmann, 2011; McCaughtry, 2011; Hochbaum, 2010;). “In short, we give him (student) additional health knowledge, but may fail to help him make sound and consistent choices in his health behavior.” (Hochbaum, 2010, p131).

“I am also sure that the teacher cannot do it (health education) by himself. He must actively involve children themselves in the process. Discussions among them, skillfully guided by the teacher, are probably more effective than any lecturing and reading.” (Hochbaum, 2010, p131). Needs to learn new pedagogy (constructivist) and apply to classroom teaching; (Lohrmann, 2011; McCaughtry, 2011).

    In cognitive constructivism, ideas are constructed in individuals through a personal process, as opposed to social constructivism where ideas are constructed through interaction with the teacher and other students. While they are fundamentally different both types will ultimately form overall constructivism or constructed learning elements for students to easily grasp; the main concept being that ideas are constructed from experience to have a personal meaning for the student. To be effective, both theories of constructivism need to be explicit in communicating concepts so that students can connect to them (Powell & Kalina, 2009, p241).

    Biggs (2012) described learning as a way of interacting with the world (p. 42). He preferred a constructivist learning framework for students. His emphasis was that education is about “conceptual change” and identified the following steps in the learning process:
  • “Appropriate learning” established by clearly defined objectives.
  • “Students experience the felt need to get there;” and motivation is important.
  • Students have the freedom to “focus on the task.”
  • Students communicate and collaborate with their peers and teachers (Biggs, 2012, p42).
    Dochy etal (2012) adapted and identifies 8 effective pedagogical principles from the European TLRP (Teaching and Learning Research Program. These principles include:  
  • Future lifelong learning results from prior knowledge and experience
  • Student’s learning perceptions are needed
  • Engagement is an important driving force for autonomous motivation and an appropriate workload
  • Life-long learning
  • Student-centered teaching methods
  • Cooperative group and team learning
  • Informal learning climate for professionals
  • Continuous life-long learning (Dochy etal, 2012, p345).
    Collaborative and creative learning environments in education provides an important approach to education. A detailed thorough review of literature was written by Hamalalainen & Vahasantanen (2011) that supported creativity and collaborative learning as an important role of the educator. The term “orchestrator or conductor” was used to describe the educator (Hamalalainen & Vahasantanen, 2011). Students also need to learn collaboration skills both in the physical and virtual classrooms.                                     

CELT is an academic support unit at HKUST which strives to nurture a collaborative and creative learning environment through partnerships with departments, faculty, other teaching staff and students.(http://celt.ust.hk/).

   3. Lack of research resources to support health instructional methods Inadequate classroom facilities and lack of high quality instructional materials; (McCaughtry, 2011; McDermott, 2011; Steele, 2011).

“High school teachers can collaborate with librarians to ensure that books and magazines that relate to fitness are available and perhaps on display.” (Steele, 2011, p74).

Health education in schools does not get equal attention and recognition for its importance as other subjects such as math and language arts do; (Lohrmann, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011; Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010; Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011).

“To this day, health education and physical education are the only areas that are not named as school subjects by the U.S. Department of Education and do not receive financial support for developing and refining their standards.” (Lohrmann, 2011, p260).

“A recent study noted that limited exercise in school-aged children is associated with poorer performance on standardized test scores…Despite the importance of obesity prevention, there is currently a lack of evidence-based programs available for implementation.” (Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011, p214).

“Supporting emotional health for children is critical in promoting academic and lifetime success.” (Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011, p210).

4. Adaptation and integration of technology in the classroom Most current health teachers are not good at implementing digital resources into their health teaching; (Fetro, 2010; Lohrmann, 2011).

Health teachers (digital immigrants) lacks understanding of the learning needs of new generation of students who are digital native; (outstanding new learning needs: media literacy) (Fetro, 2010; Lohrmann, 2011).

Health educators have to adapt their teaching strategies for delivering health-promoting messages in this digital world. (Fetro, 2010).

5. School district and community support systems

  The Health Belief Model originated in the 1950s to help predict public attitudes and actions around health issues. In 1966, Irwin Rosenstock, a prominent researcher, further “developed this model to focus efforts to improve public health by understanding why people failed to adopt a preventable health measure (Carpenter, 2010, p661). The Health Belief Model assumes that people are largely rational in their thoughts and actions, and will take the best health-supporting action if they:

Feel that it is possible to address a negative health issue; Have a positive expectation that taking the proposed action will be effective in addressing the issue; Believe they are able to take the proposed action. (http://changingminds.org/explanations/belief/health_belief_model.htm)

Lack of support from school administration levels (Valois, Zullig, Young & Kammermann, 2010; Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011).

“We have made progress in developing the concept of coordinated school health promotion, but few schools or school districts have sustained large-scale effort.” (Valois, Zullig, Young & Kammermann, 2010, p136).

“Collaboration between health professionals and schools is an important element for improving school-based health programs.” (Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011, p209).

6. Community/social networking connections and engagement Parental and community opposition to controversial health areas, lack of family support to reinforce good health habits; Student disinterests. (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011; Valois, Zullig, Young & Kammermann, 2010).

“Do health educators truly understand the national health education standards and know how our current educational strategies need to change so that youth with diverse learning styles and multiple intelligences can become health literate?” (Fetro, 2010, p259).

“In turn, students in school often find health education meaningless and abstract.” (Valois, Zullig, Young & Kammermann, 2010, p135).

7. Policy environment

    School health educators need to be knowledgeable about current national initiatives and policies in health education. One important initiative is Healthy People 2020 provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans. For 3 decades, Healthy People has established benchmarks and monitored progress over time in order to: facilitate collaboration of communities; promote individuals to make informed health choices; and health promotion and prevention activities.(http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx).    
    School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. The next SHPPS is planned for 2012. 

School Health Policies — including laws, mandates, regulations, standards, resolutions, and guidelines—provide a foundation for school district practices and procedures. Sound school health policies •Inform, support, and direct individuals throughout the school system •Reassure families, students, and school staff that safety and health protection measures are in place •Provide legal protection for schools •Help contain or prevent controversy CDC and its funded partners provide information, tools, and resources to support school health policy and program development, implementation, and evaluation. (http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/shpps/index.htm).

Model of Local School Wellness Policies: The National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity encourages schools, school districts, and others to use, distribute, and adapt the Model School Wellness Policies. (http://www.schoolwellnesspolicies.org/WellnessPolicies.html).

8. Strategies/directions

* Increase requirements for pre-service and in-service training * Establish professional community for supporting interprofessional dialogues * Promote undergraduate and graduate education in health education majors * Implement effective teaching pedagogies into classroom * Promote the use of technology in facilitating health instruction

1. Increase requirements for pre-service and in-service training

    The school health educator’s professional development typically begins in an undergraduate program. Professional development is generally defined as the advancement of skills or expertise to succeed in a particular profession, especially through continued education. The educator continues the process of lifelong learning and must maintain a high level of knowledge and skills in order to teach students current information about health topics (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/professional+development). 
    Major issues confronting school health education programs are that “only a few of the programs on the undergraduate and graduate levels are accredited in health education and a lack of coordination to accredit and use quality assurance mechanisms by colleges (Taub etal. 2009, p. 193). There have been many concerns about whether or not school health education programs should part of a coordinated accreditation system. In 2000, prominent professional school health organizations, AAHE and SOPHE, met to discuss concerns about the lack of quality assurance mechanisms in school health programs (Taub etal. 2011). Quality assurance is a program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are being met. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/quality%20assurance) 
    The National Task Forces on Health Education have provided important information for health education preparation programs. The first task force from 2001-2003, the Accreditation Task Force “developed specific recommendations to move toward a coordinated system of health education” (Taub et al. 2009, p195). The next task force, the Transition Task Force from 2004-2006 considered the issues with moving toward a unified accreditation system but with many accrediting bodies involved in the process, a coordinated system may be a better option (Taub et al. 2011, p197).  The final task force, the Implementation Task Force from 2001-2010, reviewed the recommendations from the first 2 task forces and was working toward an accreditation system and a quality assurance mechanism (Taub etal, 2011, p199). 

Teacher development, sharing, and learning; (Lohrmann, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011).

Expand professional preparation in health education; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011, Lohrmann, 2011).

“When teachers do receive training, either in specific health content or in a comprehensive curriculum, significant changes can be seen in their health knowledge, self-efficacy to teach health, feelings of preparedness and amount of content taught.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p156). “Previous research has shown that only a small percentage of classroom teachers feel prepared to teach health education, but professional development can improve teachers’ self-efficacy and confidence to teach health education.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p160).

2. Establish professional community for supporting interprofessional dialogues Role of Professional School Health Organizations plays an important part in the professional community for the school health education profession. Each organization provides essential resources for school health educators. Several of these organizations are influential in facilitating health policy changes in school health.

  • The American School Health Association’s goals for a school health program are to maintain a healthy environment, to provide nursing and other health services that assist students need to stay in school, offer nutritious and appealing school meals, provide opportunities for physical activity that include physical education, educate students about developmentally appropriate health topics taught by knowledgeable teachers, programs that promote the health of school faculty and staff, and counseling, psychological and social services that promote healthy social and emotional development and remove barriers to students' learning. (http://www.ashaweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3278).
  • The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance (AAHPERD) mission is to prompte and support leadership, research, education, and best practices in the professions that support creative, healthy, and active lifestyles. (http://www.aahperd.org/).
  • American Association for Health Education (www.HEPnetwork.org).
  • American Association of School Administrators provides numerous resources for Healthy School Environments and Children’s Programs; The School Administrator Journal; e-journals; research papers; and conferences (http://www.aasa.org/).
  • American Federation of Teachers(AFT) provides important information for teachers in the following periodical: American Teacher, AFT on Campus, American Educator, Healthwire, etc. Your School Building: Is it in Good Shape? (http://www.aft.org/).
  • The Center for School, Health & Educationfocuses on the health and social factors that influence educational success and decrease school dropout. School-based health centers have the capacity to benefit all students in a school by addressing barriers to learning. (www.schoolbasedhealthcare.org).
  • ASCDis one of the largest education associations in the world, ASCD offers you many opportunities to advance your career and connect with educators who share your interests. (http://www.ascd.org/Default.aspx).
  • ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)is committed to helping educators and school leaders develop the digital age skills they need to transform learning environments and advance excellence in learning and teaching all over the world. It offers a multitude of expert professional development services that are effective, accessible, and available for a great value. Webinars accessed at ( http://www.iste.org/store/professional-development/webinars.aspx).
  • National Council on Teacher Qualityadvocates for reforms in a broad range of teacher policies at the federal, state, and local levels in order to increase the number of effective teachers. (http://www.nctq.org/p/).
  • The National Education Association (NEA)promotes its organization as the nation's largest employee professional organization, is committed to advancing the cause of public education. (http://www.nea.org/home/2580.htm).

Promote undergraduate and graduate education in health education majors

    The National Task Forces on Health Education have provided important information for health education preparation programs. The first task force from 2001-2003, the Accreditation Task Force “developed specific recommendations to move toward a coordinated system of health education” (Taub etal, 2009, p. 195). The next task force, the Transition Task Force from 2004-2006 considered the issues with moving toward a unified accreditation system but with many accrediting bodies involved in the process, a coordinated system may be a better option (Taub etal, 2011, p. 197).  The final task force, the Implementation Task Force from 2001-2010, reviewed the recommendations from the first 2 task forces and was working toward an accreditation system and a quality assurance mechanism (Taub et al 2011, p199). 

Promote the importance of health education; (Fetro, 2010; Lohrmann, 2011; McDermott, 2011; Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010; Inman, van Bakergem, etal,2011).

“Our efforts must focus on making that connection and sharing the research that shows that health education makes a difference in academic success.” (Fetro, 2010, p262).

“There are four strategies outlined by the WHO’s Global School Helath Initiative to increase the number of health promoting schools. First, use research to improve school health programs. Second, build capacity to advocate for improved health programs. Third, strengthen national capacities. Finally, create networks and alliances for the development of health-promoting schools. ” (Inman, van Bakergem, etal, 2011, p209).

Implement effective teaching pedagogies into classroom Learning in the 21st Century

    Learning is about using both sides of the brain. Educators must guide students develop “right-brain skills in information processing and problem-solving and left-brain skills in reading, writing, arithmetic, and logical analysis” (Jukes etal, 2011, p.19).     
                            A learning theory is a set of systematic, integrated concepts and
                            research-based descriptions of how individuals acquire knowledge,
                            skills, and competencies, thus helping us understand the inherently
                            complex process of learning.  Learning theories are frameworks
                            educators consider when designing a curriculum and applying it to
                            teaching and learning. With a learning theory as a conceptual
                            framework, curriculum and instruction can be structured around
                            making learning most effective. (Encyclopedia of Curriculum 
                            Studies 2010, p535).
    Luterbach and Brown (2011) addressed the importance of the “Synthesis of 21st Century Skills” (p14). “All 21st Century learners should:
  • Be literate which requires reading, writing, and arithmetic abilities; and information literacy
  • Possess ICT skills which require the skills necessary to use input devices such as a keyboard, mouse, trackball, and trackpad; the knowledge and skill necessary to organize and retrieve computer files; to locate information from a variety of sources, and to critically evaluate the authenticity of information
  • Be self-directed problem solvers and critical thinkers and be able to use higher order thinking skills, the capabilities to question, hypothesize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, strategize, plan, prioritize, implement, produce, and reflect.
  • Possess social skills and communication skills in order to collaborate.
  • Be ethical, responsible, and accountable with the responsibility to one’s family (life skills) and community (civic responsibility, including appreciation for the safety and security of others); an appreciation for and understanding of diverse cultures and multiple perspectives within cultures; and an appreciation for and understanding of the property rights of authors and composers.
  • Possess systemic thinking skills with the knowledge about the contributions of subsystems to a larger system and the dynamically complex interrelationships that exist within and among all societal systems” (Luterbach & Brown, 2011, p14).

Health teachers should have access to current literature to keep up with “best practice” and up-to-date with resources in health education; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011).

“…other educational subject areas such as math and PE have fairly extensive literature on teachers’ professional development, teacher change, and program reform, while health education lacks such a well-developed literature base.” (McCaughtry, 2011, p283).

Teaching Health Skills (Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies Editor: Craig Kridel Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Reference, 2010).

Three levels of factors contribute to selecting healthy behaviors: predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. 
  • These factors are compatible with Benjamin Bloom’s three domains of educational activities—that is, cognitive or knowledge, affective or attitude, and psychomotor or skills— and form the basis in the National Health Education Standards.
  • Enabling factors include supportive policies and rules of groups, organizations, and institutions that promote opportunities for healthy actions. Several states, regions, and school systems across the United States implemented consortia or collaborative action teams to improve school health programs.
  • Consortia members are parents, teachers, business and industry professionals, government officials, university faculty, and health service providers who establish and achieve goals. These goals include studying the current health curriculum, advocating for healthier policies, applying for funding for health programs, and providing school staff continuing education opportunities related to health education.

Using strategies to integrate the National Health Education Standards (NHES) into curriculum, instruction, and assessment in health education; (Jensen, Tappe, Telljohann, & Wilbur, 2009).

“Classroom teachers, health education teachers and school administrators…need professional development to: understand the characteristics of effective health education curricula; understand the NHES performance indicators; align curricula, instruction and assessments with the NHES and performance indicators; map curricula within and between grades to ensure coverage of the NHES and performance indicators.” (Jensen, Tappe, Telljohann, & Wilbur, 2009, p252).

Integrating health education with other subjects to promote health instruction; ( Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010; Deal & Hodges).

“It is vital that we find ways to embed health education in professional development for core curriculum subjects like reading and writing. Integration may be a key to overcoming some of the factors teachers report as barriers to teaching health education.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p164).

“An alternative to this approach is to teach across the curriculum so that students are not denied the opportunity to make healthy choices about behaviors that can affect their health and academic success.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p156).

“Increased capacity to integrate health and languages arts was consistently reported.” (Deal, Jenkins, Deal & Byra, 2010, p160).

“Dr. Rimma Rudd…contends that health literacy includes basic literacy skills related to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; basic mathematical skills; and conceptual knowledge skills.” (Deal & Hodges, p1).

Health educators design and implement health education differently based on the new understanding and new characteristics of today’s learners; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011, Lohrmann, 2011).

“If youth spend hours on end on cell phones, can we send health messages to their cell phones that will spark health literacy?” (Fetro, 2010, p263).

Teachers should teach media literacy as part of health education curriculum. (Lohrmann, 2011). The issue of “how the advertising industry uses media messages to manipulate an individual’s behavior to act against their own best interests was an inportant concern of (Lohrmann, 2001,p265.) He proposed that the “goal of media literacy is to empower individuals by teaching them awareness of the influences that may occur consciously and unconsciously” (p265). Strategies for addressing media literacy are to educate learners to interpret media messages (p265).

“The Health Belief Model originated in the 1950s to help predict public attitudes and actions around health issues.In 1966, Irwin Rosenstock, a prominent researcher, further “developed this model to focus efforts to improve public health by understanding why people failed to adopt a preventable health measure (Carpenter, 2010, p661). The Health Belief Model assumes that people are largely rational in their thoughts and actions, and will take the best health-supporting action if they:

  • Feel that it is possible to address a negative health issue.
  • Have a positive expectation that taking the proposed action will be effective in addressing the issue.
  • Believe they are able to take the proposed action”

Constructs: There are a number of sub-variables in the belief that a health-related action is valuable. These provide both factors to enable measurement of attitudes and also routes to persuading people to act in healthy ways.

Promote the use of technology in facilitating health instruction

    “Personalized learning means allowing students to choose their own paths through the curriculum” (Richardson, 2012, p22). The potential for students to discover learning can occur through using the social web, interactive games, and mobile devices (p23). However, schools have not been as supportive of personalized learning because it may “disrupt” an educational system that is based on “time-and-place-learning (p23). Richardson (2012) has seen a shift to a “more inquiry-based, personalized approach to learning at a high school in New Jersey (p24).
    Furthermore, Richardson (2012) was interested in asking the question, “How can we shift curriculum and pedagogy to guide students to develop and answer their own questions? (p23).  Teachers at this particular New Jersey high school suggested that students become responsible for their own learning based on their own passions. By allowing students to create their own learning experiences, the students become more interested in meeting the course objectives.  Students could select their own books and learning media. Technology has been incorporated into courses where students blog for feedback from teachers. Podcasts, Web 2.0, and Google Docs are also used for personalized learning. 

Health educators learn to adapt their teaching strategies for delivering health-promoting messages in this digital world; (Fetro, 2010; Lohrmann, 2011).

Collecting and sharing of quality instructional materials for health instruction; (Deal & Hodges, p3).

“Many children’s books contain authentic context and could be used to support the development of basic reading, writing, and health literacy.” Teaching methodology changes to provide active and skill-based health instruction; (Lohrmann, 2011; McCaughtry, 2011).

Technology integration; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011, Lohrmann, 2011).

Cross-subject connection and integration; (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, Lohrmann, 2011).

“Assist elementary teachers so they can appropriately integrate health concepts within math, science, language arts, social studies and other subjects.” (Fetro, 2010, p263).

Interdisciplinary Teaching & Learning in education involves two or more academic, scientific, or artistic disciplines (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/interdisciplinary) Interdisciplinary learning is Interdisciplinary learning is one of many ways to learn over the course of a curriculum. When educators consider their curricular objectives and students' needs, they may choose interdisciplinary learning to deliver part or all of the content they will present. This method can help bring students to a new awareness of the meaningful connections that exist among the disciplines. (http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/interdisciplinary/index.html#sbs).

Community building/partnerships/collaboration: Make health education beyond a single subject. (Fetro, 2010; McDermott, 2011, McCaughtry, 2011, Lohrmann, 2011).

How HELO will provide needed support.                                                                                                 

* Provide school health education professional development opportunities

* Assist educators to identify their professional needs within their school system

* Educators need to determine the opportunities within their individual school districts for professional development

* Provide school health education coursework for major or minors degrees for health teachers SUNY Learning Network, MERLOT, and OER are examples of online learning resources for professional education.

* Coursework should include educational theories for understanding how to educate students and how students learn.

  School health educators must understand the health literacy needs of students by encouraging children "to become more involved in their own health decisions and educate them with health literacy skills at an early age" (Borzekowski, 2009, p286).   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Child Development has formed the foundation of understanding the growth and progression of children. Piaget’s phases of development were the following. In the “Intuitive Phase from 4-7 years of age, speech becomes more social and less egocentric  with an intuitive grasp of some logical concepts but will focus on one aspect and ignore others. Concepts formed are crude and irreversible with an inability to maintain reality.  Perceptions dominate judgment. And thus, a child is unable to make appropriate decisions about moral and ethical behavior. In the next phase, the Period of Concrete Operations from ages 7-12 years, organized and logical thought begins to develop.  There is the ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation. The child is capable of concrete problem-solving. In the final stage, the Period of Formal Operations from 12 years and on, thoughts become more abstract with the ability to incorporate the principles of formal logic. The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident. Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality. Formal logical systems can be acquired (http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html).  

* Establish a health education professional community for health teachers.

    School Health Educators can look to professional educators for infomation and guidance. Giselle O. Martin-Kniep is an American educator, researcher, program evaluator, and writer. As the president of Learner-Centered Initiatives, and the CEO of Communities for Learning: Leading Lasting Change [1] previously called the Center for the Study of Expertise in Teaching and Learning. Martin-Kniep has worked with hundreds of schools and districts nationally and internationally in the areas of alternative assessment, standards-based design, school improvement and action research.[2]

Her most recent work in (2011), was to set-up appraisal review systems which were accepted by New York State Department of Education as an adoption system for use with public school district-wide APPR work. Addtional authored and published books include: •(1998) Why Am I Doing This: Purposeful Teaching with Portfolio Assessment. Heinemann. •(1999) Capturing the Wisdom of Practice: Portfolios for Teachers and Administrators and Becoming a Better Teacher: Eight Innovations that Work. ASCD •(2003) Developing Learning Communities Through Teacher Expertise. Corwin Press[5] •(2005) Becoming a Better Teacher: Eight Innovations that Work. Prentice-Hall •(2007) Communities that Learn, Lead and Last: Building and Sustaining Educational Expertise. Jossey-Bass. •(2008) Supporting Mathematical Learning: Effective Instruction, Assessment, and Student Activities, Grades K-5 (with Joanne Picone-Zocchia) Jossey-Bass(2009)

* Changing the Way You Teach, Improving the Way Students Learn (with Joanne Picone-Zocchia). ASCD

* Provide up-to-date health education literature and education resources

* Share research studies and promote the importance of health education and its impact on students’ growth and academic success to the public Action Research has also been known as “teacher inquiry.” An action research study analyzed the technology integration practices of more than 350 teachers within 16 school districts in Florida (Dawson 2012). In this study, teachers were provided with support from a trained action research coach. This training was based on the 5 stages of the Reflective Educator’s Research protocol. The steps are:

  • To identify an inquiry
  • To identify the context of their work
  • To develop a plan for answering teacher questions
  • To analyze data in relation to their work
  • To consider implications of their work

The results of the study were based on the teachers’ inquiries. They were consistent in “stating that their main goal was for students to learn specific content. A large proportion of rural and minority students were targeted. Sixty-one % of teacher inquires were based on the whole class. Some of the main results of classroom implementation were: over 40% of classroom implementation was direct instruction which included computer directed instruction using online tutorials; about 30% of teachers used “drill-and-practice software; in 38% of the inquiries, collaborative or cooperative learning was reported; and project-based learning activities were frequently inquired about. In 56% of inquiries, teachers reported using more than 9 classroom computers. Over 60% stated that the most productive tools were word processing and presentation tools. Finally, the teachers reported outcomes in 3 major categories: student learning, learning conditions, and the instructional benefits of using technology (Dawson, 2012, 119-120).

* Provide a platform to encourage health educators to share their successes and challenges

* Share, collect, and promote new teaching strategies and methods that promote the use of digital resources for health teaching

    The future of school health education will focus on incorporating interactive technology. Lohrmann (2011) has proposed "incorporating single player video games that incorporate a multi-step approach to learning, practicing, and mastering health skills (p267). Addtional options for educating students about school health could take place in a virtual environment in and out of the the classrom; blogs, chat-rooms, and student-run helpdesks; networked platforms; handhelds; laptops; smartphones; and notebooks. " (p267).

* Share, collect and promote effective teaching methodologies and strategies

    Learning & Performance Support Systems are developed to support “personal learning needs, relating to specific roles and training (McKey, 2011, p32). This type of learning system would benefit an organizational structure. McKey, (2011) devised the Learning Environment Maturity Model (LEMM) which was designed for corporate learning and could serve as a foundation for the school educational system. This is a progressive model of learning consisting of passive, transaction, interaction, experiential, and autonomous stages (p33). “Passive and transaction learning methods include instructor-led lectures in online/distance learning that emphasizes skills training. Interaction methods focus on cooperative learning in the instructional design such as social networking and interactional games. In the experiential stage, the learning is personal and or collaborative. Examples include role-playing and simulation. Finally, autonomous learning is the ultimate goal. The autonomous learner is able to evaluate, research, and solve problems (p34).     
    Students also need to learn collaboration skills both in the physical and virtual classrooms. “A common denominator for both effective health education curricula and effective health education teachers is strategies that are interactive, experiential, and involve modeling and practice of health skills ( Herbert & Lohrmann, 2011, p. 260) Herbert and Lohrmann conducted a content analysis research project that used 5 active learning strategies to teach middle and high school students about health skills. The most effective learning strategies were “role playing, group cooperation, and small group discussions and to a lesser extent, interactive technology and team games” (Herbert & Lohrmann, 2011, p. 258). 
    O’Neill etal, (2011) studied the factors that influenced collaborative learning in distance education (p939). A Delphi study was used to elicit the opinions of an expert panel (p939). This is a summary of the top results of this study.

An instructional design that promotes collaborative learning

  • Tutor teaching by trained tutors
  • A learning community that is friendly and simple
  • Accessible technology that enables many communication means including asynchronous communication
  • Assessment feedback
  • Rationale for collaborative learning
  • Promote interaction
  • Group work
  • Prior design of collaborative tasks
  • Teamwork skills built into the design
  • Early on in the course, opportunities for social communications
  • Tools support many learning styles (p943).
    In this study, a technology questionnaire was also sent to the experts. The most useful technologies were ranked by percentages. VLE in the forms of online forums and bulletin boards were extremely useful at 100%. The moderately useful technologies were chatting functions and synchronous discussion at 94% and audio conferences and VoIP such as Skype and elluminate at 83%. Collaborative documents were extremely useful at 78%. Email and wiki spaces were moderately useful at 72% and 67%. Less than 61% were social networking software, agendas, voting, multi-user virtual environments, podcasting, and group conferencing (p943).
    Community-based learning strategies Middle school students in Pennsylvania learned about the health consequences of poor nutrition and lack of exercise, and then brought their learning to life by conducting health fairs, creating a healthy cookbook, and opening a fruit and vegetable stand for the school and community. (http://www.servicelearning.org/what-service-learning). 
    An evidence-based approach “is crucial to maximizing student outcomes.”  Evidence used to assess student performance includes “teacher observation, tests, peer assessment, and practical performance (Bruniges 2005, p102).                                                                
  Cognitive active learning strategies for high school students (Swiderski, 2011, p. 241) are important to activate prior knowledge, chunk, elaborate, and invoke a schema which leads to a deeper understanding of the information. These strategies can:encode information into the working memory to enhance the meaningfulness of the information being encoded,

assist in the effective retrieval of information (Swiderski 2011, p241).

    Self-directed learning strategies promote lifelong learning. Encouraging students to “actively participate in learning activities by constructing knowledge is a continuum (Liang etal 2011, p209) Three self-directed learning levels were identified by Liang etal (2011). Level 1, the lowest level is the “passive learner” where the educator is responsible to teach students. The strategies used are “presentation strategies including lectures, illustrated talks, demonstration, and dialogues (Liang etal 2011, p212). The medium level is described as a “gradually proficient learner who becomes responsible for learning with the educator (Liam etal 2011, p212). The educators use “action strategies which include simulations, case studies, and role playing (Liang etal 2011, p212). The third or the highest level the learner is “autonomous, probing, and creative (Liang etal, 2011, p213). The learner is able to work independently while the educator “can use the nondirective interpersonal approach (Liang etal, 2011, p213).
    Inquiry learning strategies includes reading nonfiction information. Being able to comprehend by using metacognition which is the ability to think are important aspects of the inquiry learning process (Deskins, 2012, p20).  Comprehensive and metacognition strategies involve “organization of thinking such as reading for meaning or noting information that needs further explanation or research (Deskins 2012, p21).  (http://celt.ust.hk/teaching-resources/action-research/models-and-examples). 
    Interdisciplinary Strategies (Nikitina 2002) authored the article Three Strategies for Interdisciplinary Teaching: Contextualizing, Conceptualizing, and Problem-solving from the Interdisciplinary Studies Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. This article accessed on google.com analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the 3 strategies.
    The school librarian plays a key role in inquiry-based and interdisciplinary teaching and learning. “Collaborating with classroom teachers promotes a learning process allowing students to develop higher order thinking skills. Challenging students to move beyond foundational questions and on to Essential Questions (EQ) will facilitate learning and convert information to knowledge ” (Wallace & Husid, 2012, p25). 
    The future of the school library is based on keeping the “brick and mortar or transforming to a virtual space. Digital technology is advancing rapidly and a virtual library may a more cost-effective learning environment. The other option is to develop a hybrid of the physical brick and mortar and the virtual environment (Wallace & Husid, 2012, p27-28). 

Promote new ways of teaching health in schools that incorporate emerging techologies and media literacy.

Provide teacher learning opportunities such as conferences, workshops, webinars, a mentoring program and professional resources.

  Portal Resources
  • Professional Organizations
  • Online Educational Resources
  • Mobile learning
  • Resources for Educational Blogs
  • Create a Textbook
  • Curriculum Products & Publishers
  • Technology Resources
  • Lesson Plans & Activities

Professional OrganizationsMost of these organizations offer professional development for the health educator; courses, webinars, publications, etc Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics http://www.eatright.org/ is the world's largest organization of food and nutrition professionals. The Academy is committed to improving the nation's health and advancing the profession of dietetics through research, education and advocacy. Mission—empowering members to be the nation's food and nutrition leaders Vision—optimizing the nation's health through food and nutrition

The Albany County Department of Health http://www.albanycounty.com/departments/health/ strives to protect and promote the health of individuals, families, communities and our environment. We work with many other community partners to offer a variety of programs and services to achieve our mission: ■Prevent communicable and chronic diseases, injuries, and disabilities; ■Protect against environmental hazards that threaten health and safety; and■ Promote the health and development of infants and children and the wellness of our citizens and our communities.

Alliance for a Healthier Generation http://www.healthiergeneration.org/schools.aspx?id=3474 The Healthy Schools Programs offers a variety of Webinars at no cost to participants. Champion Webinar Series Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Webinar Series: "Keeping Kids Moving" Refuel Afterschool Webinar. Expand your professional development with the FREE, 30-minute CHKRC online trainings! Learn how to help youths make healthy choices and become advocates for health in their schools, afterschool programs and communities with Engage Youths to Live Healthy Lives and Build Healthy Communities. SPARK Webinars. Attend free live monthly webinars and view archived webinars.

American Academy of Pediatricshttp://www.aap.org/en-us/aap-store/patient-education/Pages/patient-education.aspx Ages/stages, Healthy living, Safety/prevention, Family life, Health issues, Tips/tools

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance (AAHPERD) http://www.aahperd.org/ AAHPERD’s mission is to promote and support leadership, research, education, and best practices in the professions that support creative, healthy, and active lifestyles.[Approved by the Alliance Assembly, April 2006.] The national associations are:

  • American Association for Health Education (AAHE)
  • American Association for Physical Activity and Recreation (AAPAR)
  • National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS)
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)
  • National Dance Association (NDA)

American Association for Health Education http://www.HEPnetwork.org The Health Education and Promotion Network (HEP Network) offers web-based instructional courses in health education and promotion. The courses are offered in two formats: Graduate credit offered through various colleges and universities, and Professional Development (CEU) credits leading to the completion of a "Certificate Program" for teachers/educators. Foundations of Health, Health Behavior: Theory & Program Planning, Health Education Curriculum and Instruction, Health Education in Elementary Schools, Health Education in Secondary Schools, Drug Education & Prevention, Research Methods in Health Education, Applied Epidemiology, Drug Education, Human Sexuality, Worksite Health, Women’s Health, Health Behavior Theory & Planning, and Multicultural Health

American Association of School Administrators (AASA) http://www.aasa.org/ Provides numerous resources for Healthy School Environments and Children’s Programs; The School Administrator Journal; e-journals; research papers; and conferences. Asthma Wellness: Keeping Children with Asthma in School and Learning

American Council on Exercisehttp://www.acefitness.org/ Resources about Fitness certifications; Continuing Education; and Fitness for the Professional.

American Federation of Teachers http://www.aft.org/ Provides important information for teachers in the following periodical: American Teacher, AFT on Campus, American Educator, Healthwire, etc. Your School Building: Is it in Good Shape?, American Federation of Teachers (AFT) American Heart Association http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ Provides resource information about nutrition including fats and oils; physical activity; quit smoking; weight management; and stress management; CPR; etc

American Lung Association in New York http://www.lung.org/associations/states/new-york/about-us/ As America’s oldest voluntary health organization, founded in 1904, we began our fight dedicated to combating tuberculosis (TB), the most dreaded disease at the time. As TB was brought under control, the focus expanded to all lung diseases including asthma, tobacco control and environmental health issues. Today, the focus is on healthy lungs and healthy air.

American Public Health Association http://www.apha.org/membergroups/sections/aphasections/schoolhealth/ http://www.aahperd.org/aahe/proDevelopment/webinars.cfm. Professional Development APHA is committed to providing continuing education for public health professionals and those interested in public health. APHA seeks to maintain and enhance professional knowledge, increase technical proficiencies and enable members to promote public health.

The Center for School, Health & Education http://www.schoolbasedhealthcare.org It focuses on the health and social factors that influence educational success and decrease school dropout. School-based health centers have the capacity to benefit all students in a school by addressing barriers to learning. Resources: The following resources demonstrate the range of topics devoted to public health issues on the Internet: ;Reshaping Our Communities, Reclaiming Our Health: African Americans Define Strategies for Healthy Kids and Healthy Neighborhoods, 2009; Healthy Diet Counseling; March of Dimes; Access to Antiretrovial Therapy for HIV/AIDS in the U.S.; Child Health; HIV/AIDS Influenza Resources; Obesity ; Pursuit of Peace; Tobacco Control and Prevention

Society for Public Health Association (SOPHE) http://www.sophe.org/ Programs & Initiatives To address the health and wellness priorities that align with the society’s mission and strategic plan, SOPHE leads several health promotion initiatives and professional development programs.

American School Health Association http://www.ashaweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3278 One of ASHA's publications, the manual Promoting Healthy Youth, Schools, and Communities: A Guide to Community-School Health Councils.The American School Health Association's Resolutions and the National Guidelines for Health, Mental Health, and Safety in Schools provide guidance about best practices related to many specific school health issues.

ASCD (formerly the Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development) http://www.ascd.org/Default.aspx As one of the largest education associations in the world, ASCD offers you many opportunities to advance your career and connect with educators who share your interests. ASCD serves 150,000 educators in more than 145 countries; superintendents, supervisors, principals, teachers, professors of education, and school board members.

Asthma and Schools http://www.asthmaandschools.org/ consolidates information about asthma-related resources for school personnel working with grades K-12. The simple, searchable database links to educational materials, medical information, websites, and other resources useful for anyone who works in a school serving children and youth.

Be Smart. Be Well Are leading experts, valuable resources and real-life video stories about people trying to live healthier. http://www.besmartbewell.com/index.htm

The Children's Environmental Health Network http://cehn.org/ is a national multi-disciplinary organization whose mission is to protect the developing child from environmental health hazards and promote a healthier environment. Programs: Eco Healthy Child Care Policy and Children's Environments and Cancer.

Council of Chief State School Officers http://www.ccsso.org/ What_We_Do/Information_Systems_and_Research.html- Education Information Management Advisory Consortium (EIMAC); Common Education Data Standards (CEDS); Common Education Data Standards (CEDS): K-12 Implementation; State Policy Research

Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/region/humanhealth/children/webinars.html Healthy Schools Network, Inc., http://www.healthyschools.org/who_we_are.html is the leading national voice for children's environmental health at school and a national-award-winning 501(c) 3 not-for-profit environmental health organization. FHI 360 http://www.fhi360.org/en/AboutFHI/index.htm is a global development organization with a rigorous, evidence-based approach. Our professional staff includes experts in health, nutrition, education, economic development, civil society, environment and research. FHI 360 operates from 60 offices with 4,400 staff in the U.S. and around the world.

Institute of Medicine http://iom.edu/ Improving Health Literacy Within a State - Workshop Summary Nearly half of all American adults lack health literacy – an individual’s ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information.

ISTE International Society for Technology in Education Webinars http://www.iste.org/store/professional-development/webinars.aspx ISTE is committed to helping educators and school leaders develop the digital age skills they need to transform learning environments and advance excellence in learning and teaching all over the world.

The National Association for Health and Fitness (NAHF) It is a non-profit organization that exists to improve the quality of life for individuals in the United States through the promotion of physical fitness, sports, and healthy lifestyles. http://www.physicalfitness.org/ National Association for School Psychologists http://www.nasponline.org/educators/index.aspx Resources for educators: assessment and instruction, behavior, crisis and safety, diversity, economic crisis, health and wellness, mental health, social/emotional development, etc.

The National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention (National Center) http://sshs.promoteprevent.org/about provides training and technical assistance (TA) to 176 Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) and six Project LAUNCH grantees. The mission of the National Center is to strengthen grantees’ capacity in achieving their goals by offering services to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of their work.

National Council on Teacher Quality http://www.nctq.org/p/ The National Council on Teacher Quality advocates for reforms in a broad range of teacher policies at the federal, state, and local levels in order to increase the number of effective teachers. In particular we recognize the absence of much of the evidence necessary to make a compelling case for change and seek to fill that void with a research agenda that has direct and practical implications for policy.

National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) http://www.neha.org/index.shtml offers a variety of programs. Expanding beyond its original credential, today the association has seven national credential http://www.nea.org/home/2580.htm the nation's largest professional employee organization, is committed to advancing the cause of public education. NEA's 3.2 million members work at every level of education—from pre-school to university graduate programs. NEA has affiliate organizations in every state and in more than 14,000 communities across the United States.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/pages/default.aspx?wt.ac=tnTopics Resources for health and research information.

National Institute of Health http://www.nih.gov/ NIH is made up of 27 Institutes and Centers, each with a specific research agenda, often focusing on particular diseases or body systems. NIH leadership plays an active role in shaping the agency's research planning, activities, and outlook.

National Institute of Mental Health http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

National Library of Medicine/National Institute of Health http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/outreach/k12.html http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/outreach/k12.html#a7 Continuing education programs and lessons plans: issues including global health; children’s health; Medline Plus resource; Pub Med publications; HIV/AIDS; Environmental Health, etc.

National School Boards Association http://www.nsba.org/Founded in 1940, NSBA represents its State Association members and their more than 90,000 local school board members, virtually all of whom are elected. These local officials govern 13,809 local school districts serving the nation's 50 million public school students. http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/ The Key Work of School Boards: Student Achievement-The Key Work of School Boards is a framework of eight interrelated action areas to focus and guide school boards in their work. The Key Work components are Vision, Standards, Assessment, Accountability, Alignment, Climate, Collaboration and Community Engagement, and Continuous Improvement.

NYS Dept. of Health http://www.health.ny.gov/

NYS Dept. of Family & Community Health http://www.health.ny.gov/community/

NYS Office of Alcoholism & Substance Abuse Services http://www.oasas.ny.gov/index.cfm Training and resource information about addictions; Video Library for school/community presentations and group discussions regarding addictions

NYS Office of Mental Health http://www.omh.ny.gov/index.html Provides resources and publications about families and caregivers; NYACTS: An Initiative for Adults and Children on the Autism Spectrum Social & Emotional Development Tips for Children & Teens (CASEL); Bright Futures; Teens and Young Adults; YOUTH POWER! - Questions about your feelings, relationships, depression, mental health or eating disorders? Feeling the struggle? Transition Age Youth Resources

Obesity Society http://www.obesity.org/ In a special video series, Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities, the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) is following three sites over time to document their ambitious efforts to increase access to healthy foods and safe places for children to be physically active. Although the communities share conditions that typically put youth at higher risk for obesity, they are very different places in geography and demographics. The Central Valley of California is a large rural area, in contrast to the congested urban core of Chicago and, in the South, the targeted inner-city neighborhoods of Louisville.

Partnership at Drug Free.org http://www.drugfree.org/ - Across the nation via our community education programs, has trained more than 1,500 professionals who are working daily in neighborhoods, schools, civic organizations and churches to deliver programs that can help them prevent teen drug and alcohol abuse in their own communities.

PBS Teachers - Professional Development http://www.pbs.org/teachers

  • Communicate and Collaborate Online Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Technology
  • Constructing Learning Centered Environments Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies
  • Evaluating and Organizing Internet Resources and Content Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Technology
  • Improving Learning Through Collaboration Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies
  • Integrating the Internet into the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum Teacher line Class Topics: K-2, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Technology, Reading/Language Arts
  • Online Facilitator Training I: Mastering the Skills of Online Teaching Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Technology
  • Putting Technology to Use in the Classroom: Where to Start Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Technology
  • Teaching with WebQuests for Grades K-12 Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Technology
  • Using Multimedia to Develop Understanding Teacher line Class Topics: 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, K-2, Instructional Technology

School Specialty Planning & Student Developmenthttp://www.premier.us/education-resources/webinars/free-webinar-health-and-wellness Watch our free webinar, titled “Coordinated School Health: Test Scores Don’t Lie” and receive a free download of three, grade-specific lesson plans you can use in the classroom today! Academic achievement and health go hand in hand. Data has shown that healthier students are better prepared to learn and are more successful in school. Schools want to provide programs and resources that ensure the success of every student and educator. SPARK (School Specialty PE & Wellness) http://www.sparkpe.org/physical-education-resources/webinars/ Ignite a Healthy Environment Program: SPARK is proud to introduce you to Healthy Kids Challenge (HKC), our exclusive Healthy School Environment (and Nutrition Services) partner. Whether your school has just started down the path to wellness or has already organized a School Health Advisory Council and completed the School Health Index, SPARK/HKC will assess your progress and work with you to create a healthy environment that changes the behavior of your students and staff. UNESCO http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/about-us/ Education is one of UNESCO’s principal fields of activities. Since its creation in 1945, the Organization has worked to improve education worldwide believing it to be key to social and economic development.

Online Resources The Children's Safety Network (CSN) http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/ is a national resource center for the prevention of childhood injuries and violence. We offer expertise on a wide range of injury topics to State and Territorial Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Injury and Violence Prevention (IVP) programs.

The Common Core Curriculum Mapping Project http://www.commoncore.org/maps/ The Common Core Curriculum Mapping Project provides educators with high-quality, low-cost curriculum tools based on the Common Core State Standards.

Curriki K-12 Open Curricula Community The non-profit empowering educators to deliver and share curricula. http://www.curriki.org/

Cybrary Man's Educational Web Sites http://www.cybraryman.com/healthphysedlinks.htm The internet catalogue for students, teachers, administrators & parents .Over 20,000 relevant links personally selected by an educator/author with over 30 years of experience.

•Database of Educational Systems-International http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en.html

Directory of the Libraries Worldwide http://www.librarytechnology.org/libwebcats/

Discovery Education http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/health/fitness.html http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/index.html

Education Resources - Digital Librarian http://www.digital-librarian.com/education.html

Education Development Center http://www.edc.org/ Is a global nonprofit organization that designs, delivers and evaluates innovative programs to address some of the world’s most urgent challenges in education, health, and economic opportunity; conducts 350 projects in 35 countries around the world; services include research, training, educational materials and strategy, with activities ranging from seed projects to large-scale national and international initiatives. US Dept of Education Resource Directory http://wdcrobcolp01.ed.gov/Programs/EROD/

EDUCAUSE® http://www.educause.edu/about Is a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology; helps those who lead, manage, and use information resources to shape strategic decisions at every level; and a comprehensive range of resources and activities.

Federal Resources for Educational Excellence http://free.ed.gov/subjects.cfm?subject_id=258&toplvl=60 Free Health Courses Online http://education-portal.com/articles/5_Universities_Offering_Free_Health_Courses_Online.html

  • Nutrition and Medicine at Tufts University This previously taught class from Tufts Open Courseware covers theories and clinical aspects of nutrition. Outlines and class lectures discuss topics such as water soluble vitamins and infant nutrition. Supplementary material, both patient and physician handouts, are also included in the OCW.
  • Substance Abuse and the Family at University of Massachusetts – Boston UMass - Boston allows the public to access course content from several mental health classes, including this one that focuses on how families with substance abusers function. Topics also look at resources that can help these families.
  • Principles of Pharmacology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT's free Open Courseware website provides an extensive list of courses for the online learner. The content of this course, provided in the form of lectures and case studies, examines topics such as drug interaction, dosage and how the body's metabolism affects drugs.
  • Adolescent Health and Development at Johns Hopkins University Online learners can browse health courses from this medical university's OCW website by topic. Adobe Acrobat is required to download lecture material comprising of slides and mp3 audio files.
  • Field Epidemiology at University of Albany the School of Public Health department at this State University of New York University offers free self-paced courses to the public. Field Epidemiology is a 1-hour course that gives an overview of the steps taken during an outbreak investigation.

Kids Source Online http://www.kidsource.com/ information about Homework Helpers; Health & Safety; and Education.

International Libraries http://www.libraryspot.com/libraries/nationallibraries.htm

Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/index.html

MERLOT Learning and Teaching Resources http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm

National Library of Education http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/projects/nat_ed_library.asp The National Library of Education (NLE) serves as the federal government's primary resource center for education information, providing collections and information services to the public, education community and other government agencies on current and historical programs, activities and publications of the U.S. Department of Education; federal education policy; and education research and statistics. In addition to on-site access, the Library's services are available by phone, Internet, fax and mail.

National Safety Council http://www.nsc.org/Pages/Home.aspx Has safety resources about safety at home and at work; products and training; conferences; etc

New York State Dept. of Health Training for Non-Clinical Providers: We are pleased to announce a new Online Registration System for non physician HIV/STI/Viral Hepatitis Trainings. www.hivtrainingny.org HIV/STI/Hepatitis Training Centers for 2011-2016.

NYS Library Databases & E-Journals http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/gate/esubject.htm

OECD Education Working Papers http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/oecd-education-working-papers_19939019

OER Commons Open Educational Resources http://www.oercommons.org/oer Topics include: Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyles, immunizations, adolescent health, substance abuse, fitness, exercise, obesity, infection,etc.

The President’s Challenge https://www.presidentschallenge.org/ is the premier program of the President’s Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition administered through a co-sponsorship agreement with the Amateur Athletic Union. The President’s Challenge helps people of all ages and abilities increase their physical activity and improve their fitness through research-based information, easy-to-use tools, and friendly motivation.

SAMHSA's ( Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration)-Collaborative for the Application of Prevention Technologies (CAPT) is a national substance abuse prevention training and technical assistance (T/TA) system dedicated to strengthening prevention systems and the nation’s behavioral health workforce. For information on other prevention resources, please visit http://www.samhsa.gov/prevention .

Smart Tech http://smarttech.com/-For over 20 years, SMART has been helping educators reach their goals of improving student engagement, increasing academic achievement and making schools more globally competitive. Today, we are the global leader in the interactive whiteboard product category, with more than 40 million students and teachers in over 175 countries using SMART products.

Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity & Health http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/fact.htm Fact Sheets These fact sheets present report findings in population-specific format with key messages, physical activity facts and benefits, and suggestions for communities. Adolescents and Young Adults

The Teacher’s Resource Guide-http://www.theteachersguide.com/Professionaldevelopment.htm Tech & Learning-http://www.techlearning.com/index-Resources for best practices, blogs, webinars, video, magazines, etc US Dept. of Agriculture-Team Nutrition http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/about.html USDA's Team Nutrition is an integrated, behavior based, comprehensive plan for promoting the nutritional health of the Nation's children. Instructions/Interventions

Online Role Playing

Digital Storytelling

Podcasts Podcasts for educators, school, and colleges http://recap.ltd.uk/podcasting/index.php

CDC Podcasts Podcasting in the Classroom http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/gadgets.html 10 Mobile Learning Trends for 2012 http://edpublishing.wordpress.com/2012/01/06/mobile-learning-in-education-10-trends-to-track-in-2012/ Published January 6, 2012 “Mobile” has sufficiently cemented it among the buzzwords of 2012. Here’s a look at top trends and predictions for mobile learning in 2012 from industry analysts.

E Learning Resources http://www.grayharriman.com/mlearning.htm what is m-learning mlearning)? The term M-Learning or Mobile Learning refers to the use of handheld devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, laptops and any other handheld information technology device that many be use in teaching and learning. M-learning.org http://www.m-learning.org/knowledge-centre/whatismlearning The infoKit offers valuable advice for any organisation starting out in m-learning, as was compiled with interviews and contributions from all the main thinkers, creators and educators in this space See the overview presentation (below) for a great introduction to m-learning, and if you want more you can download the entire infoKit at http://bit.ly/mobilelearninginfokit

Free e-book: Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training edited by Mohamed Ally (2009) 'This collection is for anyone interested in the use of mobile technology for various distance learning applications. http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155 JISC TechD is Advice and Guidance on M-learning 'A good deal of the value added by m-learning is not to do with specific technology or resources but the new things that can be done given the portability of the technology and the resources. http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=9_5_32_4

Pedagogy in the Mobile Learning Environment, by Josie Taylor 'Recent developments in pedagogy, moving away from the transmissive, behavioural models and more toward the constructivist or socio-cognitive models, place the active learner at the heart o activities.' http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/document.cfm?docid=2842 Mobl21 http://www.mobl21.com/features/

Resources for Educational Blogs Moving Forward-Education Blogs by Discipline http://movingforward.wikispaces.com/Education+Blogs+by+Discipline How to Create Your Own Textbook — With or Without Apple http://mindshift.kqed.org/2012/01/how-to-create-your-own-textbook-with-or-without-apple/ •Create an online repository using a wiki digital tool such as Google Sites, PBworks or Wikispaces to organize resources neatly. LiveBinders- to select a template that allows you to include text for each of your resources. •Learning management systems (LMS) such as Edmodo and Schoology are also great alternatives with neat features for educational social networking. •iBooks Author. Though it can only be used on Macs, the free app offers as a drag-and-drop template that can be customized with images, interactive diagrams and videos to create a polished book. •Create, share, publish, and read digital books that engage and support diverse learners according to their individual needs, interests, and skills. http://bookbuilder.cast.org/

Curriculum Products & Publishers Agency for Instructional Technology http://www.ait.net/ The Agency for Instructional Technology has been a leader in educational technology since 1962. A nonprofit organization, AIT is one of the largest providers of instructional TV programs in North America. Educational Activities, Inc. http://www.edact.com/search.php?mode=search&page=1 Healthy Choices software; http://www.edact.com/behavior/; Professional Developments online courses about child behavior McGraw Hill Education https://www.mheonline.com/ Professional development online courses and products

Pearson School http://www.pearsonschool.com/ PreK-12 Professional development online courses and products

PEPPM On-Line Multi State Bid List http://www.peppm.org/state/NewYork.htm

The School Co. http://schoolco.com/index.php - Health education products; digital media; etc.

Technology Resources Center for Advanced Technology in Education http://cate2.uoregon.edu:8020/ •A grant management unit of the College of Education at the University of Oregon dedicated to investigating, promoting and sharing information about the use of advanced technology in education. Center for Technology and Teacher Education http://www.teacherlink.org /

Emerging Ed Tech http://www.emergingedtech.com/ Blog site

Facilitating Online http://wikieducator.org/Facilitating_Online •Facilitation is a rare and valuable skill to have. It is a service that is often used in conferences, debates, panels and tutorials, or simply where groups of people are meeting and need someone to help negotiate meaning and understanding, and to keep everyone engaged and on task. Knowledge Media Institute http://kmi.open.ac.uk/ •is about the processes of generating, understanding and sharing knowledge using several different media, as well as understanding how the use of different media shape these processes.

Institutions with Open Learning Content http://wikieducator.org/Exemplary_Collection_of_institutions_with_OER_policy

Instructional Technology Connection http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~mryder/itcon.html •Theory & Philosophy in Education, Technology and Culture. •Current Research about Learning and the Cognitive Sciences. •On-line Journals in Education, Communications and Culture. •Distance Ed Approaches, resources and available courses. •Teaching and Learning on the Internet local to virtual pedagogy. •Performance Technology going beyond technical training. •Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management •Instructional Technology in the news (Google News Search) •Corollary sites on the Web that reference this page.

Intel Education http://www.intel.com/about/corporateresponsibility/education/k12/index.htm •FOR K-12 EDUCATION-enables 21st century teaching and learning through free professional development, tools, and resources that help K–12 teachers engage students with effective use of technology.

Learnit Educational Community http://www.nortellearnit.org/technology/ •Learning using a wide range of technological tools has paved the way for an affordable way of getting educated, which used to be a privilege for only those who can afford. Today, with more and more gadgets, software applications and other advancements in technology, anyone can learn almost any available subject on their own. (Online courses; Webinars; Computer programs; Self-learning; Audio books; eBooks; eBook Readers; Portable media players; Advanced Smartphones; Computer-based Gadgets

MediaSharp http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/publications/dvds_videos/mediasharp/index.htm •Helping young people to make healthy, life-affirming choices about tobacco and alcohol. Is to help young people critically assess how media normalize, glamorize, and create role models for unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. This program increases the ability of students to "read" and produce media messages

Microsoft Education http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-us/Pages/index.aspx •Teacher Resources: Lesson Plans; Teaching Guides; Products; templates; etc

New Media Consortium Horizon Project http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project; •The centerpiece of the NMC Emerging Technologies Initiative, charts the landscape of emerging technologies for teaching, learning, research, creative inquiry, and information management. Launched in 2002, it epitomizes the mission of the NMC to help educators and thought leaders across the world build upon the innovation happening at their institutions by providing them with expert research and analysis.

NYS Technology Plan http://www.regents.nysed.gov/meetings/2009Meetings/May2009/0509brd2.htm

On 5/8/2009, Regents Statewide Educational Technology Plan - The educational technology plan is built around basic assumptions and principles: 
•USNY is an interconnected system capable of transforming the culture of teaching and learning statewide through technology. All USNY resources – from local school districts to public libraries, from higher education institutions to local museums – will be aligned in a virtual environment.

Sloan Consortium http://sloanconsortium.org/conference/2012/et4online/about •The Emerging Technologies Symposium is devoted to the emerging and innovative uses of technology designed to improve teaching and learning online. The conference focuses on the technologies that drive online learning effectiveness, highlighting research, applications and best practices of important emerging technological tools. We encourage submissions related to instruction, networking, assessment, open educational resources, new media and support services.

State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA)Class of 2020: Action Plan for Education - http://www.setda.org/web/guest/2020 •Action Plan for Education Project includes the development of the five publications designed to create a succinct message addressing technology’s transformative role in education in the hopes of informing future education and workforce development policy at the state and federal levels.

Classroom Technology Resources Disability, Special Education and Barrier Resources Curriculum Resources http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/professional-development/ EdHelper: Health Theme Units, Directory of Health lesson plans on topics including: Alcohol, Circulatory System, Digestive System, Disabilities, Drugs, Hygiene, Nutrition, The Five Senses, and more! http://www.edhelper.com/Health.htm Ed Helper Lesson Plans and Resources http://search.edhelper.com/cgi-bin/ednet.cgi Health Theme Unit - Alcohol, Bicycle Safety, Circulatory System. Excretory System, Food Pyramid, Health Professionals, Healthy ... Health and Society - Reading Level, level: grades 6 to 8. ... Health Care Woes Reading Level: grades 4 to 6. EdHound K-12 - http://www.eduhound.com/ LearntoBeHealthy.org This online health science learning site is designed to help educators communicate important health concepts to children K-6. http://www.learntobehealthy.org/

Education World http://www.educationworld.com/

The Gateway to 21st Century Skills http://www.thegateway.org/

iBooks Textbooks http://www.apple.com/education/ International Children’s Library http://en.childrenslibrary.org/ International Research with Children: Funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the International Research with Children project works in four countries to explore how children perceive other cultures outside of their own and to describe the role of books, libraries, technology, and culture in children's lives. ■ICDL Communities ■ Research Programs

KidsHealth Timely topics that relate directly to health and quality of life. The section for each age group provides different, appropriate information. http://kidshealth.org

National Center for Health Education: Growing Healthy Features planned sequential curriculum and activities that provide a sound framework for a comprehensive health education program. http://www.nche.org/growinghealthy_gradespecific.htm PE Central: Health Lessons A large number of Health lesson ideas for you to use in your Health education program. http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/searchresults.asp?category=58 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Kids' Pages Help kids make the connection between the environment and their health. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/home.htm

Research-based education practice online http://dww.ed.gov / Our mission is to translate research-based practices into practical tools to improve classroom instruction.

Scholastic http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/welcoming-internet-your-classroom Recourses; tools; student activities; products; videos of professional development Vocational Curriculum Resources

                                                                                                                                             Lesson Plans and Activities

AT&T Dynamic Solutions for Education http://www.corp.att.com/edu/ Transform Teaching and Learning: Technology is rapidly changing how and where students learn. Schools are adopting 21st century technologies including mobile applications, web-based learning, and portable content, to help improve learning outcomes. AT&T is right there, helping to lead this transformation. We provide network, security, and communications solutions that connect students in both K-12 and higher education to their peers, challenge them with real-world data and involve them in real-world conversations. AT&T is committed to advancing education. Let us help you develop tomorrow’s leaders. Common Sense Media - http://cybersmartcurriculum.org/safetysecurity/CyberSmart! Has very carefully examined the most current research findings in the fields of online victimization, risk-taking, and decision making. As a result, we’ve added many new lessons to and updated our existing lessons in online safety and security in our award–winning free CyberSmart! Student Curriculum. Computer and Technology Lesson Plans KidsHealth http://kidshealth.org/classroom/ in the Classroom offers educators free health-related lesson plans for all grades and subject areas. Each Teacher's Guide includes discussion questions, activities, and reproducible handouts and quizzes – all aligned to national health education standards.

USDA -Nutrition EducationBuild a Healthy Plate Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. Foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lean protein foods contain the nutrients you need without too many calories. Try some of these options: Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Switch to skim or 1% milk. Make at least half your grains whole. Vary your protein food choices. Keep your food safe to eat - learn more at www.FoodSafety.gov Provided by the USDA Read more: http://poststar.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/choose-my-plate-replaces-the-food-pyramid/article_d3530168-6482-11e1-8cde-001871e3ce6c.html#ixzz1o74gXpmF http://www.nourishinteractive.com/nutrition-education-printables http://www.kbteachers.com/nutrition-worksheets/ http://www.teachervision.fen.com/health/teacher-resources/43745.html http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/food/ http://www.abcteach.com/directory/basics/science/health_and_nutrition/ http://www.edhelper.com/MyPlate.htm

Education World http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/index.shtml Health and Safety lesson plans; tools /templates, teacher resources Health and Childcare Related Lesson Plans Internet 4Classrooms http://www.internet4classrooms.com/k12links.htm Teacher resources; lesson plans TeachersCorner.Net http://lesson-plans.theteacherscorner.net/health/ Health and Nutrition lesson plans and printable worksheets McRel http://www.mcrel.org/lesson-plans/health/index.asp a private, 501 (c)(3) education research and development corporation. •Lesson Plan Library - Health and Physical Education- A collection of lesson plans and activities for use in the classroom; other resources that are helpful for curriculum planning.

Teach-nology http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/lesson_plans/health/ health lesson plans

Standards Based Lesson Plan Template http://www.augsburg.edu/home/education/studentteaching/

Tools and Tips for Teaching and Learning http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/ Wisc Online http://www.wisc-online.com/Search.aspx?search=health health resources Online Learning Activities - Open and Free

Think Port http://www.thinkport.org/classroom/CONNECTIONS/lessons/food.tp Health topic lesson plans Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation http://www.thinkquest.org/en/ online projects development and digital media Online Learning Activities Children

High School and College Learning West Ed http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/pg/13 Learning Innovations (LI) conducts research and development and provides services focused on creating supportive environments that foster high-quality teaching and learning. Program staff works with schools, districts, and state departments of education to build their capacity to promote improvement.

Learning to Do Values for Learning and Working Together in a Globalized World http://www.unevoc.net/fileadmin/user_upload/pubs/LearningToDo.pdf Learning Theories Links http://www.emtech.net/learning_theories.htm

Science Daily http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/health_medicine/

John Hopkins University School of Education http://education.jhu.edu/newhorizons New Horizons for Learning-Educational Technology Resources; Journals; Teaching & Learning Strategies; Evidence-Based Education

New Times Demand New Ways of Learning http://www.netc.org/cdrom/plug_in/html/newtimes.htm Effective and engaged learning; instructional ideas; collaboration; high tech performance

Understanding the Common Essential Learnings- Handbook for Teachers http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/adx/aspx/adxGetMedia.aspx?DocID=3890,88,Documents&MediaID=11306&Filename=Understanding+the+Common+Essential+Learnings+-+A+Handbook+for+Teachers.pdf

What Works Clearinghouse http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Educational technology and behavior resources


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Borzekowski, D.L.G. Considering Children and Health Literacy: A Theoretical Approach. Pediatrics. (2009); 124; S282-S288.

Carpenter, C.J. (2010). A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Health Belief Model Variables in Predicting Behavior. Health Communication. 25: 661-669.

Deal, T.B., Jenkins, J.M., Deal, L.O., Byra, A. The Impact of Professional Development to Infuse Health and Reading in Elementary Schools. American Journal of Health Education. May/Jun 2010; 41, 3; 155-166.

Deal, T. B., & Hodges, B. (n.d.). Role of 21st century schools in promoting health literacy. Retrieved from http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/wahperd/WY HE Standards/BenhamDeal-Hodges Paper on Health Literacy in 21st Century Schools.pdf.

Dochy, Filip; Berghmans, Inneke; Kyndt, Eva; Baeten, Marlies. Contributions to innovative learning and teaching? Effective research-based pedagogy - a response to TLRP's principles from a European perspective. Research Papers in Education, Sep2011, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p345-356, 12p; DOI: 10.1080/02671522.2011.595545.

Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies. Editor: Craig Kridel. Vol. 1 Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Reference, 2010. Fetro, J. V. (Sept/Oct. 2010). Health-Literate Youth: Evolving Challenges for Health Educators. American Journal of Health Education, 41, 5, 258-264.

Hamalainen, R. etal (2011). Theoretical and pedagogical perspectives on orchestrating creativity and collaborative learning. Educational Research Review, 6, 169-184; DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2011.08.001

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Hutchison, Amy; Colwell, Jamie. Using a wiki to facilitate an online professional learning community for induction and mentoring teachers. Education and Information Technologies17. 3 (Sep 2012): 273-289.

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